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INTRO TO PSCYH: CHAPTER 2 METHODS & BASIC STATISTICS
Terms in this set (27)
the tendency to overestimate our ability to predict an event, after the event outcome is known, this is problematic because it can make common sense unreliable
The Limits of observation
Our senses can be easily fooled. People tend to generalize from their observations and assume that what they witnessed in on situation applies to all other situations
What makes psychology a science?
It relies on systematic, empirical methods of observation. These methods are shared with natural sciences, biology, physics and chemistry.
Science is cumulative
Progresses and advances cumulatively
Attitudes of science
1. Question authority
2. Expressed by Carl Sagan, Open skepticism
3. Intellectual Honesty
the procedures by which scientists conduct research consisting of five basic processes: observation, prediction, testing, interpretation, and communication (OPTIC)
a set of related assumptions from which scientist can make testable predictions
a specific, informed, and testable prediction of the outcome of a particular set of conditions in a research design
repetition of a study to confirm the results, essential to scientific process
claims presented as scientific that are not supported by evidence obtained with the scientific method
a type of sampling in which every member of the population had an equal chance of being selected to participate in a survey.
Observation of one person, often for a long period of time. Used to provide detailed descriptions of rare or remarkable events.
The researcher observes and records behaviour in the real world. Researcher tries to be as unobtrusive as possible. More often the design of choice in comparative psychology by researchers who study non-human behaviour to determine what is and is not unique about our species.
Interview and Survey
Technique used for gaining information about peoples thoughts and behaviours. Uses representative sample and random sample.
Measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another. Basic question is "Is X related to Y?" Useful when variables cannot be manipulated. Major limitation is that it does not establish whether one variable actually causes the other or vice versa.
strength of correlation between variables is strong, score of both variables is high.
Score of one variable is high while the other variable is low.
a research design that includes dependent and independent variables and random assignment of participants to control and experimental groups or conditions.
a factor that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions to determine whether it causes the predicted outcome of an experiment
in an experiment, the outcome or response to the experimental manipulation
Researchers specific description of the way that variables are measured or manipulated
consistency of measurement over related occasions
the degree to which a test accurately measures what it purports to measure, such as self-esteem, and not something else
measures used to describe and summarize research data. ex; plotting scores in tables or graphs
statistical tests calculated on sample data to make conclusions about populations.
a statistical measure of how much scores vary around the mean
1. informed consent
2. respect for persons
4. privacy and confidentiality