CHAPTER 3: THE BRAIN
Terms in this set (28)
Oldest brain region, directly connected to the spinal cord. Three main parts; medulla, pons, and cerebellum
Extends directly from the spinal cord, it regulates breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Involved in reflexes such as coughing, sneezing swallowing and vomiting
Means 'bridge' and serves as a bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain activity. Ex; info about body movements is delivered via pons from cortex to cerebellum
"little brain," contains more neutrons than an other part of brain. Responsible for movement, balance, coordination and find motor skills. Also important in cognitive activities like learning and language.
Smallest of three major areas. Controls eye muscles, processes auditory and visual information and initiates voluntary movement of the body.
problems with midbrain functioning due to loss of neutrons
is a network of cells that runs through both the hindbrain and the midbrain, is crucial to waking up and falling asleep.
largest part of human brain. consists of cerebral cortex, thalamus, and the limbic system. These structures control cognitive, sensory and motor function, regulate temperature, reproductive functions, eating, sleeping and displaying emotions.
- 1st forebrain structure
- receives input from ears, eyes, skin or tastebuds
- then it relays sensory information to the cerebral cortex
- often called "sensory relate station"
The Limbic System
Middle of the brain directly around the thalamus. Made up of: the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and cingulate gyrus.
directly below thalamus, master regulator of almost all major drives and motives we have, such as hunger, thirst, temperature and sexual behaviour, also controls the pituitary gland.
wrapped around the hypothalamus, plays a vital role in learning and memory. sensory information form sense organs goes here.
small, almond shaped structure directly in front of the hippocampus. has widespread connections and it important for processing emotional information, especially that relate to fear
a belt like structure in the middle of the brain that plays an important role in attention and cognitive control. Used for solving difficult problems.
a collection of structures surrounding the thalamus involved in voluntary motor control
the folder outer layer of the brain matter in which much f human thought, planning, perception and consciousness takes place. Four lobes; frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital.
in front of the brain and make up one-third of the area of the cerebral cortex. carries out many important functions such as attention, planning, abstract thinking, control of impulses, creativity, and social awareness.
make up the top and rear sections of the brain, play an important role in sensation and perception of touch. In the most anterior part of this is the primary somatosensory cortex.
lie directly below the frontal and parietal lobes and right behind the ears. Main function is hearing, houses primary auditory cortex where sound information arrives form the thalamus for processing.
in the rear of the brain. optic nerve travels from the eye to the thalamus and then to the occipital lobes - specifically to the primary visual cortex, which processes visual information.
A thick band of nerve fibres that connect the two hemispheres of the brain together.
significance and symptoms if corpus callosum were damaged
delayed social skills, misrepresentation of either left or right visual field
how some neural functions, or cognitive processes tend to be more dominant in one hemisphere than the other.
Examples of lateralization in humans
Handedness, footedness, ocular dominance, facial asymmetry,
an area in the left frontal lobe responsible for the ability to PRODUCE speech
an area deep in the left temporal lobe responsible for language comprehension
a method for measuring brain activity in which the electrical activity of the brain is recorded from electrodes places on a persons scalp
a special technique that extracts electrical activity from raw EEG data to measure cognitive process