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chapters1 and 2 of chemistry- Hollandsworth


________ is the study of matter and changes that occur in matter

Organic Chemistry

_________________- Study of compounds that have the element carbon as the basic structure

Bio Chemistry

______________- Study of the molecules and processes that take place in living organisms

Inorganic Chemistry

______________- Study of the compounds of all other elements besides carbon

Analytical Chemistry

______________- Study of how to determine the exact composition of mixtures and compounds. What is present and what is the exact percent composition.

Physical Chemistry

______________- Attempts to develop the theory for why matter behaves the way it does. The application of these theories can be applied to all areas of chemistry

Pure substances and mixtures

Matter can be divided up into what two categories?

Elements and compounds

Pure substances can be divided into what two categories

ionic and covalent bonds

compounds can be broken into what two type of bonds?

Homogenous and heterogeneous

mixtures can be divided into what two type of categories


chemistry is an ______________ science

Physical Properties

______________- A property that can be observed without changing the molecular composition of matter

color, size, phase, mass

what are 4 examples of physical properties

Chemical properties

______________- Properties of matter that are observed when atoms are rearranged removed replaced or added to compounds resulting in new compounds with differing physical and chemical properties

ability to burn, undergo corrosion, rust, precipitate

give 4 examples of chemical properties


these are properties that are dependent on how much matter is present


these are properties that are independent of how much matter is present

Qualitative observations

______________ - a simple description of some property of the substance

Quantitative observations

______________- always involves a measurement of the property in questoin


if something is edible then it is a ______________ property


______________ is how consistent a measurement is


______________ is how close to the actual value the measurement is

Random Error

Data from multiple measurements is scattered in a more or less uniform way around some average value. Thus equaling out. this is called ______________

Systematic Error

______________ causes data to be either smaller or larger than the actual value


A ______________ is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water to 1degree C


1 Food Calorie = ______cal


1 cal = _____ J

Thermal energy

______________- the total kinetic energy of all particles in a material

g med / kg body weight

Dosage = ________ / ___________

JJ Thompson

who was credited with the cathode ray tube experiment

Robert Milton

Who was credited with the oil drop experiment?

Ernest Rutherford

Who was credited with the gold foil experiment?

Niels Bohr

Who explained the bright line of hydrogen using a planetary model?


Chemists study matter from _ perspectives

Macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic

The 3 perspectives that chemist study matter from are?


The first atomic model was based on 3 major ______________ observations


Who was the scientist that defined the law of conservation of mass>


Who was the scientist that came up with law of definite proportions by mass


Who was the scientist that came up with law of multiple proportions?


______________ atomic theory is microscopic model to explain macroscopic observations


a proton has what charge?


an electron has what charge?


a neutron has what charge?


There are __ naturally occurring elements


How many elements are there total?


A particular element is determined by the number of __________ in the nucleus


__________ - atoms of the same element that differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons


Isotopes differ in the number of __________

chemical, nuclear stability

Isotopes of an element have the same __________ properties but different __________

protons neutrons

mass number is the number of _________ +__________

average atomic mass

the atomic mass on the periodic table is really the__________ __________ __________

protons electrons neutral

in an atom, the number of __________ equals the number of __________ so that the atom is electrically __________ overall

a positively charged ion

what is a cation?

a negatively charged ion

what is an anion?

1 2

the subshell s has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

3 6

the subshell p has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

5 10

the subshell d has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

7 14

the subshell f has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel


The ___________ principle says that elctrons "build up"by filling the lowest energy level orbitals first

Hund's Rule

___________- electrons fill degenerate orbitals one at a time (with the same spin), before pairing up electrons in the degenerate orbitals

Pauli Exclusion Principle

______________________- electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spin

down across right left

The atomic radius trend says that atoms tend to get larger and have increased radius when you go ___________ the periodic chart as you go ___________ a period, ___________to ___________

Octet Rule

atoms are most stable when they have 8 electrons

ionization energy

___________- energy needed to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom in the gaseous state


___________ is an element that typically has less than 4 electrons in its outer shell


___________- an element that typically has 4 or more electrons in its outer shell


___________- elements that exhibit characteristics of both metals and non-metals

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