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67 terms

Chemistry Exam 1

chapters1 and 2 of chemistry- Hollandsworth
STUDY
PLAY
Chemistry
________ is the study of matter and changes that occur in matter
Organic Chemistry
_________________- Study of compounds that have the element carbon as the basic structure
Bio Chemistry
______________- Study of the molecules and processes that take place in living organisms
Inorganic Chemistry
______________- Study of the compounds of all other elements besides carbon
Analytical Chemistry
______________- Study of how to determine the exact composition of mixtures and compounds. What is present and what is the exact percent composition.
Physical Chemistry
______________- Attempts to develop the theory for why matter behaves the way it does. The application of these theories can be applied to all areas of chemistry
Pure substances and mixtures
Matter can be divided up into what two categories?
Elements and compounds
Pure substances can be divided into what two categories
ionic and covalent bonds
compounds can be broken into what two type of bonds?
Homogenous and heterogeneous
mixtures can be divided into what two type of categories
experimental
chemistry is an ______________ science
Physical Properties
______________- A property that can be observed without changing the molecular composition of matter
color, size, phase, mass
what are 4 examples of physical properties
Chemical properties
______________- Properties of matter that are observed when atoms are rearranged removed replaced or added to compounds resulting in new compounds with differing physical and chemical properties
ability to burn, undergo corrosion, rust, precipitate
give 4 examples of chemical properties
Extensive
these are properties that are dependent on how much matter is present
intensive
these are properties that are independent of how much matter is present
Qualitative observations
______________ - a simple description of some property of the substance
Quantitative observations
______________- always involves a measurement of the property in questoin
Chemical
if something is edible then it is a ______________ property
Precision
______________ is how consistent a measurement is
accuracy
______________ is how close to the actual value the measurement is
Random Error
Data from multiple measurements is scattered in a more or less uniform way around some average value. Thus equaling out. this is called ______________
Systematic Error
______________ causes data to be either smaller or larger than the actual value
Calorie
A ______________ is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water to 1degree C
1,000
1 Food Calorie = ______cal
4.184
1 cal = _____ J
Thermal energy
______________- the total kinetic energy of all particles in a material
g med / kg body weight
Dosage = ________ / ___________
JJ Thompson
who was credited with the cathode ray tube experiment
Robert Milton
Who was credited with the oil drop experiment?
Ernest Rutherford
Who was credited with the gold foil experiment?
Niels Bohr
Who explained the bright line of hydrogen using a planetary model?
3
Chemists study matter from _ perspectives
Macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic
The 3 perspectives that chemist study matter from are?
macroscopic
The first atomic model was based on 3 major ______________ observations
Lavoisier
Who was the scientist that defined the law of conservation of mass>
Proust
Who was the scientist that came up with law of definite proportions by mass
Dalton
Who was the scientist that came up with law of multiple proportions?
Dalton's
______________ atomic theory is microscopic model to explain macroscopic observations
Positive
a proton has what charge?
negative
an electron has what charge?
neutral
a neutron has what charge?
94
There are __ naturally occurring elements
118
How many elements are there total?
Protons
A particular element is determined by the number of __________ in the nucleus
Isotopes
__________ - atoms of the same element that differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons
Neutrons
Isotopes differ in the number of __________
chemical, nuclear stability
Isotopes of an element have the same __________ properties but different __________
protons neutrons
mass number is the number of _________ +__________
average atomic mass
the atomic mass on the periodic table is really the__________ __________ __________
protons electrons neutral
in an atom, the number of __________ equals the number of __________ so that the atom is electrically __________ overall
a positively charged ion
what is a cation?
a negatively charged ion
what is an anion?
1 2
the subshell s has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel
3 6
the subshell p has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel
5 10
the subshell d has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel
7 14
the subshell f has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel
Aufbau
The ___________ principle says that elctrons "build up"by filling the lowest energy level orbitals first
Hund's Rule
___________- electrons fill degenerate orbitals one at a time (with the same spin), before pairing up electrons in the degenerate orbitals
Pauli Exclusion Principle
______________________- electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spin
down across right left
The atomic radius trend says that atoms tend to get larger and have increased radius when you go ___________ the periodic chart as you go ___________ a period, ___________to ___________
Octet Rule
atoms are most stable when they have 8 electrons
ionization energy
___________- energy needed to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom in the gaseous state
metal
___________ is an element that typically has less than 4 electrons in its outer shell
nonmetal
___________- an element that typically has 4 or more electrons in its outer shell
metalloids
___________- elements that exhibit characteristics of both metals and non-metals