Which groups can be described as a "cohort"?
The group of people who grew up during The Great Depression (a group of people who share a common historical experience at the same stage of life)
Experiences linked to age and occurring with most adults are called
normative history-graded influences
what research design would I need to use to discover if work efficiency or productivity rises, remains constant, or declines over the years from age 20 to 65
The Duke studies of aging involved the selection of separate groups of adults aged 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65. Each group was then retested at 2-year intervals for a total of 6 years. This is an example of what type of research design?
The large-scale research project known as the Midlife in the US (MIDUS) National Survey included questions pertaining to personal health that was sent out to 7000 participants between the ages of 25 and 74. This type of study in which data is gathered at one time from groups of participants who represent different age groups is an example of what general type of research design?
A researcher selects a sample of 65-year-olds and interviews and tests them every 2 years for 14 years. Over these years, some of these subjects die or drop out of the study due to poor health. This phenomenon is referred to as
one of the most common instruments to gather data is a personal interview. Which of the following questions/statements might a researcher ask in a structured interview?
typically uses multiple choice types of questions
If I were to select a sample of 30-year olds, another sample of 40-year olds, and a third sample of 50 year olds, test or interview them once, and then test or interview them again 10 years later, this would be an example of what kind of research design?
which of the following correlation coefficients shows the strongest relationship between the 2 variables entered into the correlation?
Correlation varies from -1 to +1 with the highest correlation being closer to -+1 and the lowest closer to 0
which of the following timing/experience combinations would be likely to create the LEAST stress and disruption, according to the shared experiential/social clock model?
shared experiential/social clock model= defining the normal sequence of adult life experiences, such as the timing of marriage, college graduation, and retirement. Even though our society has expanded the choices we have in the timing of these experiences we still are aware of the "normative" timing of these events
In our culture, adults in their early 20s are expected to marry, start families, establish themselves in their jobs or careers, and settle into separate households; 45 year olds are expected to be launching their children into independence, to be reaching the peak of their careers, and to be caring for their own aging parents. Such expectations illustrated which concept?
shared experiences/social clock
Which of the following is a common characteristic of US adults who were young children during the great depression of the 30's, according to Elder's research?
-spent a greater portion of their childhood under conditions of economic hardship. Hardship altered family interaction patterns, educational opportunities, and even the personalities of the children, so that the negative effects could still be detected in adulthood
Which is NOT a major category of influence that helps to explain both the ways we tend to be alike and the ways we tend to be different in our adult journeys?
Some categories ARE normative age-graded influences, normative history-graded influences, non-normative life events
Biologically influenced changes in adulthood occur
Sequence of physical change is highly similar, some are universal (loss of muscle tone). Rate of physical changes varies greatly from one individual to another
which of the following scenarios is MOST likely a non-normative life event
a non-normative life event is unique to you, not shared with many others
which of the following research designs would be the LEAST useful when using a sample population of a typical college freshman class to make comparisons of PRERETIREMENT and POSTRETIREMENT exercise regimen on positive life outlook
Three groups of males take a timed reaction test. All the males in group 1 are aged 20. The males in group 2 are all aged 40. The males in group 3 are all aged 60. The statistic reported to describe the differences in reaction time between groups is each group's mean score. However, this mean score does NOT identify ______?
the SD, variance between scores of the members of each group (other possible answers unknown)
There is a significant positive correlate between IQ scores and academic performance (grades). Given the statistic we can reasonably conclude that_______.
as IQ scores increase, grades increase. as IQ scores decrease, grades decrease.
Your 70 year old father recently mentioned that he no longer enjoys driving at night because of glare from the headlights of oncoming traffic. Having taken this course, you are not surprised. Based on the information in the text, what other activities may prove problematic for him?
Anything to do with reduction of all the senses, bone and cartilage decreasing, etc
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness for all people in the United States. Which statement below does NOT accurately describe glaucoma?
Glaucoma is the buildup of pressure in the eye that ultimately can destroy the optic nerve and lead to blindness. Treated with eye drops, later treatment surgery. Few symptoms, half of the people with it don't know they have it. usually only detected during routine eye exams
There is an association between loss of muscle mass and age that may be corrected by
resistance training and stretching
Scientific evidence regarding the effects of aging on the nervous system seems to have changed over the last decade. Which statement below would NOT be supported by today's evidence.
Things that WOULD be supported are loss of neurons, or brain cells in primary aging is much less severe than once thought. it is confined to certain parts of the brain and sometimes is related to an improvement in function instead of a loss. Neuronal loss varies considerably from person to person. Some neurons in the brain appear in duplicate, a feature called redundancy, so that neuron loss may not always result in a loss of function
which therapy provides pre-menopausal women with the hormones once produced by their ovaries that sharply reduce the symptoms of the climacteric
hormone replacement therapy
Medina (1996) suggests that changes in older men's and women's sexual responses are generally
slower (see table 2.6 on pg 60)
A reasonable inference from the information presented in this unit regarding the availability of sexual partners for older adults suggests that which older person would have the LEAST problem locating a sexual partner?
women are much more apt to find themselves without a sexual partner in later years so an older man with children who support him re-marrying would have the LEAST problems
When body changes are linked to age but appear to be the product of environmental influences or health habits, it is an example of ______?
Cells of different species, when observed in nutrient solutions, are seen to divide varying numbers of times, with cells of the most long-lived species dividing more times than the cells of short-lived species. The total number of divisions for any given species is sometimes referred to as _______.
A normal chemical process in the body, resulting from exposure to sunlight, x-rays and food creates molecules or atoms that possess an unpaired electron. These atoms and molecules are called
In which parts of the body do fat deposits INCREASE in middle and old age (past the age of about 50)?
upper arms, thighs, belly and buttocks
In which of the following age ranges is the average weight at its peak?
changes in weight follow a pattern over adulthood, first rising from the 20s to the 40s, staying level into the 50s and 60s, then declining by the 70s...55 to 59 seems to be what the graph is telling us
The thickening of the lens of the eye that results in loss of visual acuity inn the middle and older age is part of a process called____
at about what age does a significant loss of visual acuity begin to be measurable for most adults?
the gradual loss of hearing resulting from wear and tear on the auditory nerves and inner ear structures is called
sensorineural hearing loss
what is the pattern of sex differences in sensory loss over adulthood?
men are more likely than women to suffer significant hearing loss
Which of the following changes in taste sensitivity appears to be a normal part of aging?
the ability to taste and smell declines as we age, we have half as many taste buds at 70 as we did at 20, less saliva is produced which releases less molecules in the food to be sensed, taste buds that detect sweet and salty decline more rapidly than others causing us to salt and sweeten our food and drinks more
the suggested mechanism behind the genetic limits theory of aging comes from the discovery that chromosomes in many human body cells (and those of some other species too) have, at their tips, lengths of repeating DNA called _______
which of the following is NOT a correct statement about the pattern of osteoporosis with age for men and women?
True: 68% of people with osteoporosis are women, both men and women start a gradual decline of bone mass after the age of 30.
which of the following is NOT a major risk factor for severe osteoporosis?
Some risk factors are: increased age, family history, female gender, European, Asian or Latino ancestry, history of earlier bone fracture, sedentary life style, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, underweight BMI.
the general term used to describe the loss of reproductive capacity among both sexes in middle and later life is____
Current evidence on age-related changes in levels of testosterone in men indicates that _____.
testosterone decreases with muscle mass and bone density, varies by person, and declines are influenced by injury, obesity, alcohol intake and both physical and psychological stress.
Which of the following is a key change that occurs in the immune system with increasing age>
with age, T cells show a reduced ability to fight new infection. Immune system becomes weakened due to chronic diseases becoming more prevalent and exercise and nutrition declining in old age
Premenopausal and menopausal changes in women are triggered by a significant reduction in the production of which hormone?
What does current research tell us is the most likely relationship between menopausal status and risk of clinical depression in women?
women in peri-menopausal stage are more apt to have depressive symptoms and anxiety (the time immediately prior to menopause)
which of the following is NOT a change in sleep patterns with increasing age in adulthood?
True: insomnia increases with age. We tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening and wake up earlier in the morning as we age. it takes longer to fall asleep and we spend fewer hours in deep, refreshing sleep.
Which of the following is the best statement about individual differences in the rate or pattern of physiological aging?
Things that influence individual differences in aging: genetics, lifestyle, psychosocial factors (attitudes, beliefs and adaptability), and economics
The immune system does not function as well in later adulthood as it did in earlier years, partly due to the greater prevalence of chronic diseases and susceptibility to stress. _______________ may help in later adulthood.
Lifestyle changes, medical interventions, and diets high in antioxidants
Residents live in apartments with limited assistance for meals, baths, and medication
The probability of dying in any given year is called the _________ rate; the probability of contracting an illness is called the _________ rate.
Although cancer remains the second leading cause of death for adults in the United States, the type of terminal cancer changes based on age and gender. For example, a 50-year-old female is most likely to die from _____ cancer, a 65-year-old male from _____ cancer.
The last few decades have seen advances in identifying genes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Twin studies indicate that genetic factors have a _______ influence on incidence.
Limited??—APOE E epsilon 4 gene increases a person's chances of getting the disease, but not 100 percent of people with the gene get the disease
Which of the following would keep a person over 60 from seeking help for a disorder?
Generational differences make older people more self-sufficient, thrifty, and used to keeping problems to themselves. Also, many symptoms they might experience are similar to false stereotypes of aging, which they could fall into and not see their symptoms as a disorder.
Which of the following is the most common cause of death in adults between ages 24 and 44 in the U.S.?
Which of the following are the 2 leading causes of death among adults in their 40s and 50s in the U.S.?
Cancer and heart disease
What is the age-related pattern of acute and chronic diseases over adulthood?
Younger adults are about twice as likely as those over 65 to suffer from acute diseases. Chronic diseases, however, do show an age-related increase.
Dressing yourself, bathing, walking a short distance, using a toilet, and eating without assistance are all examples of what gerontologists call _______.
Activities of daily living
Among adults, which ethnic group in the U.S. seems to have the best health?
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
The term used to describe a disease of the arteries in which there is a gradual build-up of calcified, fibrous, and fatty tissue is _______.
The term used to describe any significant global deterioration in intellectual abilities in older adults is __________________.
Epidemiological studies suggest that roughly what percentage of adults over age 65 suffer from significant dementia, including Alzheimer's disease?
doesn't mention percentage, but is the fifth leading cause of death..maybe roughly around 20%
One major sex difference in health experiences over adulthood is that _______.
Men have shorter life expectancies than women and higher rates of heart disease.
Which group of adults shows a pattern of short life expectancy and high rates of chronic illness throughout adulthood?
Non-hispanic black adults (males)
Which of the following diseases or health problems is more common among African Americans than among Caucasians?
Hypertension, stroke, 2nd highest for diabetes, and highest for cancer
It is estimated that 20 percent of the elderly have pathological levels of anxiety. Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
Some anxiety disorders ARE: phobias, PTSD and OCD
Many definitions of intelligence include the global abilities to _______.
Act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) scores produce a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. This suggests that 2/3 of all adults obtain a score between _______.
85 and 115
On which of the following types of tests do adults retain the most skill well into old age?
Verbal, crystallized tasks (knowledge and fluency)
According to Cattell and Horn's theory of intelligence, which type of intelligence is thought to reflect the more basic, physiologically based type of ability?
which of the following would be considered a measure of fluid intelligence?
requiring adaptation to new situations (prior education gives little advantage), letter series tests, memory tests, response speed tests and abstract kinds of knowledge.
Which of the following would be considered a measure of crystallized intelligence?
The ability to evaluate experience, the ability to reason about real-life problems, and technical skills learned for a job and other aspects of life (balancing a checkbook, counting change, finding the salad dressing at the store)
Suppose you hear someone say, "Intellectual skill is maintained, with no psychologically significant loss, until about age 60 or 65, after which there is a small decline." You are convinced that this is an overly optimistic view. Which of the following statements would be your most potent counterargument?
Something mentioning cross-sectional studies from the 20's-50's which seemed to show that declines in IQ began in early adulthood and continued steadily thereafter
When speaking of the type of intelligence based on education and experience, Horn and Cattell refer to _______.
In studies of memory, what is the term used to describe the processes by which new information is committed to memory?
You are introduced to someone new, and say his name over to yourself so that you will remember it a minute later when you will have to introduce this new person to someone else. Where is the new name likely to be "located" in your memory system?
Which pair of memory systems demonstrates the largest decline with age?
episodic and prospective memory
on which of the following kinds of everyday memory tasks is an older adult likely to do as well as younger adults?
semantic memory tasks, such as vocabulary and general knowledge
The latest research on age-related changes in judgment and decision-making suggests that older adults utilize less information and take less time to make their choices (when compared to younger adults). However, there were NO differences in the choices made. The authors suggest that this is because _______.
Older people recognize their cognitive limitations and make decisions based on less complex thought processes.
As is true for people of any age, the effect of health on rate or timing of decline in cognition or intellectual skills is clearest _______.
Dixon suggests the cognitive changes that take place as we age should be examined in terms of "gains and losses." What is one area of gain?
???? decision making is quicker, and positivity bias (tend to focus more on the positive events than the negative)????
Which of the following persons is most likely to maintain good intellectual functioning into old age?
More likely to maintain good health: women, more educated, more physically active, more intellectually active
What is the key flaw in studies of the effect of exercise on mental abilities in which comparisons are made between regular exercisers and sedentary adults?
People are divided into active or sedentary lifestyles based on their current lifestyle choices and it is possible that people who are already functioning at a higher intellectual level are more likely to choose a more physically active lifestyle