10: Radioactivity and Nuclear Processes
Terms in this set (41)
nuclei that undergo spontaneous changes and emit energy in the form of radiation.
a process in which an unstable nucleus changes energy states and in the process emits radiation.
the particle that makes up alpha rays. it is identical to the helium nucleus and is composed of two protons and two neutrons.
the particle that makes up beta rays. it is identical to an electron but is produced in the nucleus when a neutron is changed into a proton and an electron.
a high-energy ray that is like an X-ray, but with a higher energy.
an isotope of an element that emits nuclear radiation.
the new nuclei produced when unstable nuclei undergo radioactive decay.
a positively charged electron
a mode of decay for some unstable nuclei in which an electron from outside the nucleus is drawn into the nucleus, where it combines with a proton to form a neutron.
the time required for one-half the unstable nuclei in a sample to undergo radioactive decay.
radical or free radical
an electron-deficient particle that is very reactive.
acute radiation syndrome
the condition associated with and following short-term exposure to intense radiation.
inverse square law of radiation
a mathematical way of saying that the intensity to radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of the radiation.
physical unit of radiation
a radiation measurement unit indicating the activity of the source of the radiation; for example, the number of nuclear decay per minute.
biological unit of radiation
a radiation measurement unit indicating the damage caused by radiation in living tissue.
a physical unit of radiation measurement corresponding to 3.7 X 10^10 nuclear disintegration per second.
a physicalunit of radiation measurement corresponding to one nuclear disintegration per second.
a biological unit of radiation measurement used with X-rays and gamma rays; the quantity of radiation taht generates 2.1 X 10^9 ion pairs per 1 cm^3 of dry air or 1.8 X 10^12 ion pairs per 1 g of tissue.
a biological unit of radiation measurement corresponding to the transfer of 1 X 10^-3 cal of energy to 1 kg of tissue.
a biological unit of radiation measurement corresponding to the transfer of 1 J of energy to 1 kg of tissue.
a biological unit of radiation measurement corresponding to the health effect produced by 1 roentgen of gamma or X-rays regardless of the type of radiation involved.
a radiation-detection device operating on the principle that phosphors give off light when struck by radiation.
a radiation-detection device operating on the principle that ions form when radiation passes through a tube filled with low-pressure gas.
a radioisotope used medically because its progress through the body or localization in specific organs can be followed.
tissue in which a radioactive tracer concentrates.
tissue from which a radioactive tracer is excluded or rejected.
a process for determining the age of artifacts and rocks, based on the amount of half-life of radioisotopes contained in the object.
materials capable of slowing down neutrons that pass through them.
a cyclic particle accelerator that works by changing electrical polarities as charged particles cross a gap. The particles are kept moving in a spiral path by a strong magnetic field.
a particle accelerator that works by changing electrical polarities as charged particles cross gaps between segments of a long tube.
synthetic elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium.
a process in which large nuclei split into smaller, approximately equal-sized nuclei when bombarded by neutrons.
a nuclear reaction in which the products of one reaction cause a repeat of the reaction to take place. In the case of uranium fission, neutrons from fission reactions cause other fission reactions to occur.
expanding or branching chain reaction
a reaction in which the products of one reaction cause more than one more reaction to occur.
a constant-rate chain reaction.
a branching chain reaction.
the minimum amount of fissionable material needed to sustain a critical chain reaction at a constant rate.
the minimum amount of fissionable material that must be present to cause a branching chain reaction to occur.
a nuclear reaction in which isotopes that will not undergo spontaneous fission are changed into isotopes that will.
nuclear fusion reactions that require a very high temperature to start.
a process in which small nuclei combine or fuse to form larger nuclei.
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