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Combo with "Environmental Science Atmosphere" and 1 other
Terms in this set (75)
What are the main two gases in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen (78%) & Oxygen (21%)
Four layers of the atmosphere in order from closest to furthest from the Earth's Surface:
1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Mesosphere 4. Thermosphere
Which layer is weather and greenhouse gases found?
Explain in steps how the greenhouse effects work:
1. The sun excretes visible light
2. Visible light is absorbed and degraded into infrared radiation.
2. The infrared is re-emitted into the atmosphere and trap's heat in greenhouse gases.
The natural greenhouse effect sources:
- Volcanic eruption
- The water cycle
- The nitrogen cycle
Two main gases in the atmosphere:
- Nitrogen (78%)
- Oxygen (21%)
The enhanced greenhouse effect sources:
- Mining (methane)
In which layer is weather and greenhouse gases found?
How does both greenhouse effect's work? (step 1, 2, 3)
1. Visible light and UV radiation is emitted into our atmosphere.
2. Visible light is absorbed into the earth and degrated into infared radiation.
3. Infared radiation becomes trapped in greenhouse gases and vibrates, causing heat.
How are humans contributing to the greenhouse effect?
- Burning of fossil fuels
- Industrial processes
- Sewage treatment
- Land clearence
- Humans use these processes for energy and modern society requirements, which produce greenhouse gases that stimulate the greenhouse effect.
How does deforestation contribute to the greenhouse effect?
- Tree's and plants are carbon sinks.
- Carbon sinks absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
- Therefore deforestation links to the greenhouse effect by removing carbon sinks which means that greenhouse gas is left in the atmosphere.
- Greenhouse gases fuel the greenhouse effect.
impacts with water in global warming:
- People exposed to increased water stress (0 degrees)
- Increased water availiblity in moist tropics & high lattitudes (0 degrees)
impacted with the natural ecosystem in global warming:
- Increased coral bleaching (1 degrees)
- Animal migration
- Death of species
- Widespread coral mortality (2 degrees)
impacts with food in global warming:
- Not being able to grow crops (0 degrees)
- Localised negative impacts on small holders, substinence farmers and fishers (0 degrees)
Impacts with coasts in global warming:
- Increased damage of flood and storms (0 degrees)
- About 30% of global coast wetlands lost
-increased river erosion and dam salination.
impacts with health in global warming:
- More strain on the health system (0 degrees)
- Increased mortality and morbidity from heatwaves, floods and droughts
- Water born diseases
How to describe main trends:
1. Use specific numbers from graph.
2. State how much the temperature has decreased or increased.
3. What time period has it changed.
The seven impacts of the enhanced greenhouse effect:
- Temperatures will increase.
- Changes in precipitation.
- Changes to soil.
- Rising sea levels.
- Extreme weather conditions.
- Species are going to be effected.
- Impacts on humans (stress, crops).
What is the purpose of the kyoto protocol?
An international agreement between countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The main kyoto mechanisms:
- International emissions trading: Buying and selling carbon units.
- Clean development mechanism: Making machinery or anything more energy efficient and joint implementation.
Is the kyoto protocol a local, national or international response?
How is coal made?
- Formed from dead plant material compressed over a million years.
What is coal used for?
- Burned to produce steam which turns a turbine to produce electricity.
How is petroleum oil made?
- Formed from dead aquatic plants and animals that sank to the ocean floor and is compressed.
What is pretoleum oil used for?
- Car fuel
How is natural gas made?
- Formed by micro-organisms under the earths crust which break down decayed matter
What is natural gas used for?
When are ozone and CFC's greenhouse gases?
When they are found in the troposphere.
How has the kyoto protocal now been updated?
- They have signed a new agreement to further reduce their emissions.
- 37 countries involved.
- Goes on for 8 years.
The coastal ecosystem effects from climate change?
- Increased erosion.
- Flooding increased.
- More salt water intrusion into underground water system.
The water resources effects from climate change?
- Increased river erosion and dam salination
- More salt in our water
How is the natural ecosystems been effected by climate change?
- Extreme events increased (within temperature, precipitation etc).
- Survival of species and communities becomes more difficult.
How has agriculture and forestry been effected by climate change?
- Less water availability
- Enhanced or lessened CO2 fertiliaztion
- increased damage by extreme events
- Pests and diseases increase
- Loss of income
- Is where the ozone layer is located
- Layer above the troposphere
- The mesosphere is above the stratosphere and below thermosphere.
The thermosphere is directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
- The lowest region of the atmosphere, where weather and greenhouse gases are found
- The layer of gases which surround the earth.
- Absorbs ultra violet solar radiation.
What is solar radiation?
Energy that comes from the sun, such as visible light, ultraviolet rays and infared radiation.
What is hydro energy?
- Electricity generated by hydropower
What is wind energy?
- Electrical energy obtained from harnessing wind with windmills or wind turbines.
What is solar energy?
- Radiant energy emitted by the sun.
What is geothermal energy?
- Energy in the form of heat.
- Obtained from hot circulating ground water.
What is a biofuel?
A fuel derived from living matter.
What is a fossil fuel?
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed from the remains of living organisms over a long period of time.
Human source of carbon dioxide:
- Combustion of fossil fuels to produce electricity
- Biomass burning.
Natural source of methane:
- Processes occuring in swamps.
- Decompisition processes.
- Tropical wetlands.
Human source of Nitrous oxide:
- Activities such as fertiliser use.
- Breakdown of livestock waste.
- Burning of biomass.
- 360 bbm (carbon dioxide)
- 1725 bbp (methane)
- 311 bbp (Nitrous oxide)
Emmisions trading scheme:
The national limit on greenhouse emissions (aka national cap). In order to produce greenhouse gases a company must purchase the right number of permits.
Victoria's main response to reduce the effects?
- Increasing the use of renewable sources for the supply of electricity and transport.
- Increasing energy efficiency.
- Exploring oppurtunities for carbon storage.
What you can do to reduce your contribution to the enhanced greenhouse effect:
- Grow organic plants.
- Turn off lights.
- Less driving.
- Use a fan instead of air conditioning.
- Put a jumper on instead of heating.
Example of a local, national and international response to greenhouse emissions:
- Emissions trading scheme is national.
- Kyoto protocol is international.
- Growing organic plants is local.
Difference between enhanced and natural greenhouse effect:
- More greenhouse gases are dissipated in the natural greenhouse effect.
- The enhanced greenhouse effect contains more heat.
Increased coral bleaching
At 1 Degrees
Define the term lithosphere:
Is the surface of the earth that is compared of dirt, rocks and other surface materials.
Is the lithosphere abiotic or biotic? Explain
The lithosphere is abiotic because it is made purely of non-living materials such as dirt and rocks.
Layers of the earth:
Crust, Mantle, Inner core and Outer core.
Is the ridgid outer surface of the earth that is comopsed mostly of basalt and granite.
Is the outer part of the earth core that is very hot.
- Hot air rises from the inner core to the other layers.
Is a solid iron nickel centre of the earth that is very hot and under imense pressure.
Is a rocky layer under the crust that is composed of silicon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminim and calcuim.
Is the crust of the earth that is composed of dirt, sand, soil and other terrain materials.
The movement of the earths continents via techtonic plates shifting.
Are when techtonic plates spread away from eachother.
Are when techtonic plates move towards eachother.
Are when techtonic plates slide beside one another.
Are rocks formed from the cooling of magma.
Are rocks formed from the building up of layers of eroded particles and remains of dead organisms from the sea.
Are igneous rocks or metamorhic rocks that are altered by heat, pressure or chemical change.
Are natural formations that are created by the movement of techtonic plates. Erruptions give nutrients to the lithosphere.
A natural disaster that depletes oxygen in soil and transport nutrients.
Name the types of convergent plates in the picture
Divergent, Transform and Convergent.
What are cows in the trophic level?
A Primary consumer, Herbivore and a Heterotroph.
(2nd trophic level)