DELTA: Module 1 Methodologies
Terms in this set (40)
theory about the nature of language and language teaching
describes how language is used/interlocks
describes how it's acquired and best conditions for acquiring it
practical realisation of an approach
includes various procedures and techniques
types of activities, role of teacher and learner established
ordered sequence of techniques
list of instructions in order
based on behaviourist theory (habit forming)
to engender good habits
drilling with substitution built in (there's a spoon on the table)
sts shielded from making mistakes
Weaknesses of audio-lingualism
de-contextualised language with little communicative function
sts can't make mistakes so can't learn from them
no language processing in sts' minds
Presentation Practice and Production
Extension of audio-lingualism
Lang. introduced in context, T elicits sentences + presents rules
Sts practice further in pairs
Sts make sentences of their own
Criticism of PPP
Michael Lewis: "PPP reflects neither the nature of language nor the nature of language learning."
Language is "full of interlocking variables and systems and should not be broken down"
Alternatives to PPP
Keith Johnson's "deep-end theory" - immediate production.
TTT - Test Teach Test
Communicative Language Teaching/The Communicative Approach
CLT theory + methodology
-Focus on functions/functional language
-"language learning will take care of itself"
-lots of exposure to authentic language
-accuracy less important than successful completion of communicative task
-information gap activities
Criteria for "Communicative Activities"
-a desire to communicate
-a communicative purpose
-content not form
-variety of language
-no teacher intervention
-no materials control
Criteria of "Non-communicative Activities"
-no communicative desire
-no communicative purpose
-form not content
-one language item only
Criticism of CLT
-prejudiced in favour of native teachers: T must be able to respond to any lang. point that comes up
-has eroded explicit grammar teaching: leading to loss of accuracy in pursuit of fluency.
Task Based Learning - Prabhu 1987 India
-sts just as likely to acquire new lang. doing non-linguistic task as when studying lang.
-sts presented with task to perform or problem to solve
-lang focus only takes place after task has finished
-deep-end strategy (Johnson) PPP upside down (Willis)
-lang focus based on errors/emergent lang.
-sts may hear an example/model task before
-different role for T; can't be a controller
-less focus on accuracy
TBL - Class Structure
intro to topic and task (pre-teach minimal lexis + explain task instructions)
task - sts complete in pairs/small groups
planning - sts plan how to describe their decision to the class
report - sts report results/decision to class
practice - based on emergent lang/errors/topping-up
Criticism of TBL
-could be less suitable for lower-levels
-unsuitable to base whole pedagogical methodology on
-tasks lead to use of lang of "task solving" to detriment of other language (discussion, debate, other social interactions)
Humanistic Theory - The affective variable/filter
-learners' state of mind + response to learning process central to success or failure in lang learning.
-if learners feel hostile towards subject, materials or methods success is unlikely.
-KRASHEN - if sts feel relaxed, positive, unthreatened, acquisition is more likely + the opposite
-lowered affective filter = good, relaxed, happy
-raised affective filter = bad, uncomfortable, threatened
-Lang. learning about creativity, self-knowledge, personal identity
-sts speak from inner-selves
Criticism of humanistic theory
-is it T's job to make sts reveal their inner-selves?
-strong western cultural bias - not appropriate everywhere
-concentration on inner-self may limit scope of language explored
-too much focus on emotional/affective detrimental to cognitive/intellectual development
Name 4 Humanistic Methods.
When were they developed
CLL - Community Language Learning
The Silent Way
TPR - Total Physical Response
Community Language Learning
-sts sit in circle - decide what they want to talk about
-sts build text together by recording utterances
-one st decides what they want to say - T helps them say it possibly using translation
-recording can be analysed later for lang. focus/reflection
-period of reflection after
-learner-led - T as facilitator
Influence of CLL on mainstream
-idea of sts reflecting on their learning experience now commonly accepted
The Silent Way
-T speaks only as last resort
-T points to phonemes on chart or uses cuisenaire rods, T indicates if sts make correct sounds
-sts discover and create lang themselves rather than remembering and repeating
Criticism + Praise + Influence of Silent Way
Silence seems unnatural
Sts completely reliant on themselves/take full responsibility for their learning
use of phonemic charts/cuisenaire rods
influence on discovery learning
-focused on lowering affective filter - sts should be comfortable, confident and relaxed
-"infantilisation" T and sts have parent/child relationship
-sts given different names
-T presents new dialogue language
-T reads new language in time with baroque music in a seance-like ceremony
-several minutes of solemn silence
Influence of Suggestopedia
-Importance of lowering affective filter now accepted
-music often used in classrooms
Total Physical Response - James Asher
-based on idea that children learn L1 from linking language to actions through instruction
-sts respond physically to language before producing it
-language processing matched with physical action
-physical action helps lower affective filter
-T gives instructions and sts follow them "stand up slowly and walk to the door"
Criticism + Praise of TPR
only for beginners
good for kinaesthetic learners + young learners
lots of comprehensible input
The Lexical Approach
Michael Lewis/David Willis
-Language consists of multi-word prefabricated chunks
-fluency is result of store of (semi) fixed chunks as foundation for linguistic novelty+creativity
-move away from syntax/tense usage
-teach phrases which show words in combination
-most vocab is learnt not taught
-exposure to suitable input is key
-analyse texts for word combinations/collocations etc.
Lexical Approach teaching "will"
Instead of teaching "will" for future, teach it in archetypal phrases:
- I'll give you a ring
-I'll be back in a minute
-I'll see what I can do
Criticisms/problems with Lexical Approach
-Can you learn the chunks without learning the system?
-Is grammar needed to form/understand the chunks?
-do we have to learn endless lists of phrase book style chunks for all situations?
"All chunks but no pineapple" (Thornbury)
Exposure to Language
sts need constant exposure to lang.
students need comprehensible input + opportunities for noticing/conciousness raising
communicative activities + TBL offer real learning benefits but not enough on their own
The affective variable
anxiety needs to be lowered for learning to take place
language discovered personally more likely to be retained/acquired
grammar and lexis
both as important as each other - how words combine semantically and grammatically key part of lang learning
methodology and culture
-teaching methodology rooted in pop culture
-assumptions not necessarily shared by students from -different traditions/backgrounds
-compromise may be necessary
-combine different approaches/methodologies in response to sts needs, wants, reactions.
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