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speech sound, target sound, utterance: smallest unit of speech in a language


study of the sound system of language


word formation in a language including inflection, derivation, and compounding


The pattern or structure of word order in sentences, clauses and phrases.


meaning language


the appropriate use of language in different contexts

phonological awareness

ability recognize spoken language and how it can be pull apart, blended, and manipulated - non print

phonemic awareness

ability recognize spoken language and how it can be pull apart, blended, and manipulated - print and sound

graphophonemic knowledge

relationship of printed letters to spoken words

high frequency irregular words

was, a, are, the have you, says, too, this, said, of, oh, away, what, does, do.


knowledge about our own thinking processes, of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes


think and talk about thinking

What activity would best promote students' understanding of relationship b/w written and spoken words?

The teacher displays a big book and points to each word as she reads the book aloud

What oral language activity would be most effective in promoting students' multicultural awareness and appreciation?

Teacher guides students to discuss some features that folk tales of various countries have in common as well as some of the unique features of each culture's folk tales.

Mathematical Theorem

a mathematical statement derived from axioms, definitions, and previously proven statements

American Revolution most influenced political developments in Mexico and Latin America by:

demonstrating that it was possible to overthrow European colonial rule

Civil rights movement in 1960's sought to address issues from:

Reconstruction era following the civil war

The concept of region helps examine geography by providing:

a convenient and manageable unit for studying Earth's human and natural envir.

Eli Whitney developed interchangable parts, allowing for division of labor, resulting in:

reduced price of goods produced

Opportunity costs lead to consumers:

establishing purchasing priorities

The main effect of formal changes to the constitution has been to:

make the constitution more democratic than the original document

How does the federal executive branch check the power of the federal judicial branch?

the president appoints the supreme court justices

Cultural Diffusion

sharing cultural ideas or materials b/w populations(close or far)


the exchange or adoption of cultural features when two cultures combine or come in direct contact

When are thunderstorms most likely to form?

fast-moving cold front enters an area in which there is a warm, humid air mass

What best supports the big bang theory?

microwave background radiation is fairly evenly distributed across space

Two major characteristics of the 1st American literature?

Maudlin and self-pitying egocentricism. (ex: John Smith, William Bradford, and Michael Wigglesworth)


Long poem, usually of book length, reflecting values in society. Include: invocation to a Muse for inspiration, purpose for writing, general setting, protaganist/antagonist with supernatural strength, and intervention of a God or gods.

Epic examples

Illiad, Odyssey, Aeneid, Paradise Lost, the Fairie Queene, Aurora Leigh, The Rape of the Lock


A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but b/c of the fame of sender/recipient becomes public domain. (EX: Paul in the Bible)


terse tale offering up a moral or exemplum (EX: "The Nun's Priest's Tale" about animals that speak and act like humans, illustrating human foibles)


a story told or sung, usually in verse and accompanied by music. Earliest forms were anonymous folk ballads.


found in ballads, also called the repeated section


found in ballads, also called incremental repetition, used for effect


traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, that started as facts, but have fiction added


stories that are universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions (also, usually to explain a natural phenomenon)


longest form of fictional prose


the only requirement is rhythm.

Fixed Literature (poetry)

sonnet, elegy, ode, pastoral, and villanelle

Petrarchan or Italian Sonnet

divided into an octave rhyming abbaabba and a sestet normally rhyming cdecde

Shakesperian Sonnet

It has three four-line units, or quatrains, followed by a con¬ cluding two-line unit, or couplet.

Unfixed Literature (poetry)

blank verse and dramatic monologue

Octava Rima Poetry

Oct- eight-line stanza whose rhyme scheme is ababacc


sad and melancholic poem, usually about the death (lamenation) of an individual. Funeral poems or elegy is one of the most popular formats used in funeral and memorial services today. Way to remember: eulogy

Spenserian Stanza (Poetry)

fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene. Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'Alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is "ababbcbcc."

Short Story

typically a terse narrative, with less developmental background about characters. Poe emphasized that successful short story should create one focused impact. (EX: Hemmingway, Faulkner, Twain, Poe, and Pushkin)


interpretation of dialogue must be connected to motivation and detail. Director seeks a variation of tempo to keep audiences attention

Dramatic Arc

similar to the plot diagram


contains at least one subject and one verb

Independent clauses

can stand alone or be joined with another clause

2 types of dependent clauses

1) with subordinating conjunction
2) with a relative pronoun

Examples of coordinating conjunctions:


Examples of relative pronouns:


Misplaced modifiers

phrases not placed near the word they modify. (EX: "One damaged house stood only to remind townspeople of the hurricane." - suggests that the sole reason the house remained was to serve as a reminder. Correction: "Only one damaged house stood, reminding townspeople of the hurricane."

Dangling modifiers

phrases that do not relate to the subject being modified. (EX: "Weighing the options carefully, a decision was made about convicting the criminal." - who is weighing the options? Correction: "Weighing the options carefully, the judge made a decision...")

Semi-phonetic Phase

realization that there is a relationship b/c letters and sounds. Students tend to spell by sound. Teacher should emphasize phonetics (sounding word out).

Phonetic Phase

Students write one letter, or a cluster of letters, for every sound in the word. Teachers should emphasize visual strategies (looking for predictable letter sequence and patterns)

Transitional Phase

beginning phase of using visual memory. Students have learned about letter patterns, but often use them incorrectly. Teachers should implement visual and morphemic strategies (pre-fix, suffix, roots)


figure of speech where someone absent or something inhuman is addressed as though present and able to respond. (difference b/w that and personification: absence of item/person, and only a reference to)


quality in a work of literature that evokes feelings of pity or compassion. (Ex: Desdemona's death in Othello)


a conversation or conference, usually formal


a statement that at first seems to be absurd or self-contradictory but which may in fact turn out to be true


an unusually far-fetched [extended] metaphor comparing two very dissimilar things cleverly


a brief, often witty saying, usually an observation about life; (ex: a proverb, Jerry Seinfield)


a punctuation mark indicating omission, interrupted though, or an incomplete statement. In an ellipsis, word/words that would clarify the sentence's message are missing, yet it is still possible to understand from context


an error involving time in a story; something or someone misplaced in time


x values are not repeated

A quadratic function has imaginary roots. What is always true of the graph of the function in the xy-coordinate plane?

It never intersects the x-axis

Direct variation

2 things vary directly: as one gets larger, the other does too; if one gets smaller, so does the other one.

If x and y vary directly, there should be a constant

Ex: pay per hour at the same rate: increase hours=increase pay

Inverse variation

as one gets larger, the other gets smaller

If x and y vary inversely, there should still be a constant.

Ex: driving time: increase speed=decrease time

Linear Function

f(x)=ax + b

Slope intercept form

y=mx + b (m is the lines slope, b is the y intercept)

Finding slope when graph or coordinates are given

slope = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1)

Finding Standard Form of graph when coordinates are given

1) Find slope first: (y2-y1)/(x2-x1)
2) Fill in slope and coordinates for Ya and Xa: Y-Ya = m(X-Xa)
3) Clean up (if answers have fractions w/ same denominator, multiply both sides by that whole number)

ex: (5, 6) and (-1, -2)
1) (6 + 2)/(5+1) = 4/3
2) Y+2 = 4/3(X +1)
y + 2 = 4/3x + 4/3
y = 4/3x -2/3
3) (3)y = 3(4/3x -2/3)
3y = 4x - 2

To find y intercept

substitute 0 for x and solve. To find x intercept, substitute 0 for y and solve.

Standard Form

ax + by = c

Graph w/ Vertical Line

x= any number, meaning it only has an x intercept. Slope is undefined

Graph w/ Horizontal Line

y= any number, meaning it only has a y intercept. Slope is 0.

Quadratic Formula

x = -b ± √(b² - 4ac)/2a

Quadratic Equation

an equation of the form ax² + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0

Solving quadratic equations

1) factor 2) set each factor = 0 3) solve

x² + 10x - 24 = 0
1) (x + 12) (x-2)
2) x + 12 = 0 x - 2 = 0
3) x = -12 x = 2

Quadratic Graphs

f(x)=x² : normal graph, vertex at origin
f(x)= (x± c)² : opposite of what you would think- negative goes right, + goes left
f(x)=x² ± c: positive goes up, negative goes down
f(x)=cx² : again, opposite of what you would think-the larger the number the skinnier the graph; the smaller the number the wider the graph. If c is negative the parabola points down

Absolute Value Graph

"V" shaped

Identity Function

linear equation y = x, graph is a line going through origin and 1st and 3rd quadrants at 45 degree angles

Greatest Integer / Step Function

equation uses [ ], graph looks like steps

Rational Function

has 2 graphs (parabolas) and asymptotes (a line that a graph approaches, but does not intersect)

Piecewise Function

Piecing multiple graphs together (may or may not intersect)


series of numbers that follow a specific pattern.


is a sum of numbers represented by sigma (looks like a large greek E)


is the slope of a tangent line to a graph f(x) and is usually denoted f'(x).

Also referred to as the instantaneous rate of change.

1st derivative

reveals whether a curve is rising or falling from left to right

2nd derivative

relates whether the curve is concave up or concave down

maximum point

where y is the largest of all y values

minimum point

where y is the smallest of all y values

Reflexive angle

measures more than 180 and less than 360 (has a circle around the back of the angle to show it goes all the way around and is greater than obtuse)

Skew lines

do not intersect and do not lie on the same plane

Parallel Lines

have same slope

Perpendicular Lines

slopes are negative reciprocals (ex: 3 and -1/3)

If slopes aren't same or negative reciprocal the answer is neither

geometric construction

drawing made using only a compass and straightedge, and consists of only segments, arcs, and points

Euclidean geometry

Euclid wrote a set of 13 books in 330 BC called Elements, where he outlined 10 axioms and then deduced 465 theorems. Is based on the undefined concept of the point, line, and plane.

His 5th axiom (parallel postulate) has not been as readily accepted b/c it could be proved by the other 9 he created.


4-sided space triangle (basically a triangular pyramid)

Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System

if we know the dimensions of a 2-D shape, we could use coordinates to visualize that shape

glide reflection

combination of reflection and translation

Midpoint formula

(x₁+x₂)/2, (y₁+y₂)/2

Stem and Leaf Plots

best suited for small sets of data and are especially useful for comparing 2 sets of data


the opposite of a symmetrical distribution. (in symmetrical mean=mode=median)

Box and Whisker Plot

a diagram that summarizes data using the median, the upper and lower quartiles, and the extreme values (outliers).


shows how spread out a set of numbers are. The larger the variance, the larger the spread.

To find: 1) add all numbers together
2) square that answer
3) divide by number of items

Standard Deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (looks like a lower case cursive o on the calculator)

is found by taking the square root of variance


dividing the bell curve into 9 sections (5th section is the mean)


1st Quartile: median of the lower half of the data set
2nd Quartile: median of the entire data set
3rd Quartile: median of th upper half of the data set

Sample space in probability

list of all possible outcomes

Counting Principle in probability

2 distinct, independent events: n x m

Ex: 3 options for meal x 2 options for dessert

Addition Principle of Counting

n(AorB) = n(A) + n(B) - n (A n B)
The probability of event A or event B happening, if dependent on each other

ex: drawing a Jack or black card: 4 + 26 - (26-4) = 28

To find:
Probability of A + Probability of B - Difference of both probabilities

Addition Principle for Mutually Exclusive Events

n(AorB) = n(A) + n(B)
If events are mutually exclusive of each other

ex: travel agency offers 16 trips to Asia, 14 to Europe, in how many ways can you select a trip to Asia or Europe?
14 + 16 = 30

To find: add events together

Multiplication Principle of Counting for Dependent Events

n(AandB) = n(A)n(B|A)
When the first event effects the outcome of the second event

ex: How many ways can a Jack be drawn twice without replacing? 4 x 3 = 12

To find: multiply the outcomes of event A x outcomes for event B (should usually be 1 less than event A)

Multiplication Principle of Counting Independent Events

n(AandB) = n(A)n(B)
ex: how many 6 letter combinations can be created if none can repeat? 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21


used in permutations

written: n!
ex: 5! = 5x4x3x2x1 = 120tg


probability of an experiment where replacements are not allowed. (easier to use the counting principle) Order is important!

nPr= (n!)/(n-r)!
r-number of items to be selected
n- number of draws

ex: How many ways can 7 students choose a president and vice president?
7P2= 7!/(7-2)!
=7 x 6 x 5!/5! the 5!'s can cancel out
=7 x 6
= 42


measures the distance in standard deviations from the mean

z-score = (outcome-mean)/standard deviation

ex: mean = 50, standard deviation=10, probability of less than 42

4 types of measurement scales used in statistic


nominal measurement scale

most basic: classify responses into categories

ex: gender, race, religion, marital status

ordinal measurement scale

compares categories

ex: movie ratings, surveys (question with scales like "highly satisfied" or "1-good, 2-fair...")

interval measurement scale

numeric scales, where intervals are fixed, uniform values throughout (limitation: no fixed 0 point)

ex: thermometer

ratio measurement scale

most informative scale, b/c it allows for proportional comparison (twice as much $, or half the length)

basically an interval scale with a true 0 point

ex: length measurement, $ systems, degrees Kelvin (b/c 0 value represents the absence of length, $, or temp.)


If: hypothesis
Then: conclusion


read: if p then q

Expresses a theorem and its converse are true?

A if and only if B

Negation of a Statement

If a statement is true, then its negation must be false and vice versa

EX: "if p, then q" is "p and not q"
"not q" is "q"
"r and s" is "not r" OR "not s" (if you negate both, than still true)
"r or s" is "not r" AND "not s"

negation of: "some winter nights are not cold" : "none of the winter nights are cold"
"if it rains, then the beach party will be held" : "it rains and the beach party will not be held"

Venn Diagram in Math

if circles are inside each other: the inner circle must also meet the rules of the outer circle

4 standard forms of valid arguments

Law of Detachment
Law of Contraposition
Law of Syllogism
Disjunctive Syllogism

Law of Detachment

Premise 1: If p, then q
Premise 2: p, therefore q

Law of Contraposition

Not q, therefore not p

If John drives the big truck, then the shipment will be delivered
The shipment is not delivered
b/c ~q = ~p
Answer: John does not drive the big truck

Law of Syllogism

If q, then r
Therefore if p,then r

Disjunctive Syllogism

p or q
not p, therefore q

Ex: Peter is a Jet Pilot or a Navigator
Peter is not a Jet Pilot

p v (or) q
~p, so has to be q
Answer: Peter is a Navigator.


study of limit, rate of change, area under a curve, and slope of a tangent line.

Junior high prepares for this by learning:
linear growth
exponential growth
change over time


deals with angles, triangles, functions of sine, cosine, and tangent

Development in jr high:
similar shapes
pythagorean theorem
algebraic expressions/equations

Careers using Trig:
land surveying



American Revolution

English colonists in America won freedom from Great Britain

Results: representative govt.

French Revolution

revolt of middle/lower class against rulers b/c of extreme taxation, inflation, lack of food, and disregard for their living conditions

Results: consulship, a generalship, and then an emperor

Protestant Reformation

b/c of religious, political, and econ. reasons.

Religious: abuses in the Catholic church- fraudulent clergy w/ immoral lifestyles, sale of religious offices, different theologies, frauds w/ sacred relics

World War I

Serbian assassinated Archduke of Austria. Austria demanded a full investigation, Serbia refused. Austria (w/ ally Germany) declared war on Serbia (w/ ally Russia).

Germany then declared war on Russia, followed by France (b/c of France's alliance with Russia).

Germany invaded Belgium (neutral) to be closer to Paris.

Britain (ally to France and Belgium) declared war on Germany.

US (under President Woodrow Wilson) declared neutrality. But, Germany threatened commercial shipping w/ submarine warfare, and US joined in 1917.

Treaty of Versailles finally signed & League of Nations was created, agreeing to avoid armed conflict through disarment and diplomacy.



Germany, Italy, and Japan initiated a policy of aggressive territorial expansion. Japan attacked China, Italy invaded Ethiopia, Germany (under Hitler) immediately began to build up armed forces (a direct violation of peace treaty)

Germany then invaded many countries, including Austria, Czech, Polland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, and France.

US (under Franklin Roosevelt) announced neutrality. Roosevelt's plan was to defeat the Axis nations by sending the Allied nations war supplies. Roosevelt stopped all exports to Japan and refused to let them withdraw money from American banks. Japan bombed US at Pearl Harbor, causing US to join in war.

After victory was atttained in Europe, focus went to Japan. 2 atomic bomb were dropped and the Pacific war ended.

Allies agreed that Germany's armed forces be abolished and Nazi Party outlawed.

Outcome: United Nations named for promoting world peace.

Consequences: death, destruction, displaced people, strength/spreading of Communism/Cold War tension (ended more lives and caused more devastation than any other war)

Korean War

After WWII ended, Japan stopped controlling Korea. The Soviet Union occupied the North, US controlled the South, through trusteeship.

United Nations ordered elections to create a unified govt. but both countries backed different candidates, creating a division of 2 separate states.

North Korea (backed by Soviets) declared war on South Korea (US, British, Australia, UN forces). China also got involved when forces entered N. Korea.

1953: Peace negotations resulted in cease-fire. Since then, N. Korea has an isolated, communist dictatorship, S. Korea has grown into a major world economy.

Vietnam War

Like Korea, Vietnam became divided after WWII (communist North, western-govt South). North began to drive out South.

US became more involved when N. Vietnam attacked US ships. As controversy over the war began to grow in US, Nixon began to reduce troops, while assisting the S. Vietnam army in building strength. US withdrew troops, with a promise from Nixon to send defense assistance. But, after Watergate, Congress cut off all funding.

US withdrawal left S. Vietnam w/o economic or military support, and N. Vietnam was able to take control of the entire country.


at least 2,000 ft above sea level


areas of lowlands formed by soil and sediment deposited at the mouths of rivers


flat top hills or mountains, usually with steep sides. (similar to plateaus, but smaller)

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