90 terms

World Geography Final Exam S1

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Capitalism/Market Economy
Prices of good based on demand and supply, completion drives companies to produce better goods
Mixed Economy
Government owns many businesses but private property is allowed... Russia's current economic system
Command Economy
Government owns all businesses and property and people have few choices of goods to buy
Imports
bring (goods or services) into a country from abroad for sale
Exports
send (goods or services) to another country for sale
Subsistence Farming
self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families
Developed Countries
a state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations
Developing Countries
a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base
Less Developed Countries
a nonindustrialized or Third World country
Industrialization
the process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period
GDP/Per Capita
a measure of average income per person in a country
Standard of Living
the degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community
Infrastructure
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Urban
in, relating to, or characteristic of a city or town
Rural
in, relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town
Quality of Life
the standard of health, comfort, and happiness experienced by an individual or group
Birth Rate
the number of live births per thousand of population per year
Death Rate
the ratio of deaths to the population of a particular area during a particular period of time, usually calculated as the number of deaths per one thousand people per year
Population Growth Rate
the increase in a country's population during a period of time, usually one year, expressed as a percentage of the population at the start of that period. It reflects the number of births and deaths during a period and the number of people migrating to and from a country
Literacy Rate
the amount of people who can read in write in a country
Life Expectancy
the average period that a person may expect to live
The death and birth rates start to even out making a population stop growing and stay in one place
What is economic development's impact on population growth?
Population Density
a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume
Stage 1 Population Pyramid
Stage 2 Population Pyramid
Stage 3 Population Pyramid
Stage 4 Population Pyramid
Zero Population Growth
the maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to only what is needed to replace the existing population
Indigenous People
people defined in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory
Arable (Fertile) Land
land used or suitable for growing crops
River Valleys
a valley formed by flowing water
Climate
the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period
Climate Graphs
a combination of a bar graph and a line graph. Temperature is shown on a line graph, with the figures being shown on the right side of the graph. Rainfall is shown by a bar graph, with the figures being shown down the left side of the graph.
Elevation
the action or fact of elevating or being elevated
-arable land = more population
-bad soil = less population
-rivers in the area = more population
-no rivers in the area = less population
What is physical geography's impact on population?
Natural Resources
materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
Abundance
a very large quantity of something
Scarcity
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage
Pollution
the presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects
Sustainability
the ability to maintain the qualities that are valued in the physical environment
-factories = pollution, deforestation, using natural resources, etc.
What is the effect of economic development on the environment?
Democracy
a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives
Authoritarian [dictatorships]
favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom, usually with a dictator in charge
Totalitarian
of or relating to a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete loyalty and obedience to the state
Communism
a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single -- often authoritarian -- party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital
Corruption
the use of powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
Censorship
official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression believed to threaten the political, social, or moral order
Foreign Relations
the management of relationships and dealings between two countries
Interdependence
One country depends on another country for something and that country may depend on another country, creating (term)
-more money made
-loss of traditions/culture
-more jobs
-no more isolation
What are the effects of globalization?
Religion
the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods
Ethnicity
the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another
Revolution
a forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system
Colonialism
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
Imperialism
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
Nationalism
The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination.
-geographic isolation
-natural resources
How has physical geography impacted Russia's development?
oil, gas, coal, and timber
What are the natural resources of Russia?
Russian Revolution
1905, protesting Czar Nicholas II, overthrew the government, led by Vladimir Lenin, established Communist government
Joseph Stalin
the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, brutal leader, sent people to labor camps, made Russia into a totalitarian country, brutal dictator
Fall of the Soviet Union [USSR]
Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers - including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes - to Russian President Boris Yeltsin
-transition to capitalism
-vladimir putin's rule: corruption, censorship, conflict in chechnya [separatism], organized crime
How do current government public policies impact the people of Russia socially and economically?
Boris Yeltsin changed Russia from a Command economy to a Market economy
Russia's Transition to Capitalism
Secretive
One word to describe Vladimir Putin's rule?
-corrupted
-censored
-secretive
What is it like to live in Russia while Vladimir Putin is in power?
Chechnya wants to break off from Russia, ongoing war between them
What is the conflict in Chechnya?
Separatism
A portion of your country wanting to break off from the country
Organized Crime
a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals, who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit
-religion: orthodox church
How do cultural traits unify and/or divide Russian society?
Orthodox Church
Russia's official religion, Ivan the Terrible forced everyone to become this religion
-cooperation and tension
What is Russia's relationship with the United States?
-declining population
-life expectancy
-health care
Why have demographic changes occurred in Russia and how have they impacted Russia's quality of life?
-pollution (radiation in a lot of places in Russia)
-lack of government regulations has led to environments being lost
How has the environment been impacted by political, economic, and social conditions?
-isolation
-population patterns
How has physical geography impacted the development of East Asian countries?
-westernization/european influence
-communist revolution/civil war
-People's Republic of China
-Mao Zedong
-Great Leap Forward
-Cultural Revolution
How did historical turning points in China result in economic, political, and social change?
-westernization/european influence
How did historical turning points in Japan result in economic, political, and social change?
-Korean War
- Kim Jong Il
How did historical turning points in Koreas result in economic, political, and social change?
-standards of living
-economic development
How do current government public policies impact East Asian people economically?
-Special Economic Zones [SEZ]
-middle class
-globalization
-tibet [separatism]
How do current government public policies impact China people economically?
-cultural diffusion
-confucianism
-taoism
-buddhism
-shintoism
How do cultural traits unify and/or divide the people of East Asia?
-trade
-allied
-world powers
What is the relationship between East Asian countries and the United States?
-amount of freedom and civil liberties: speech, press, censorship
-transition to capitalism
What are the similarities and differences between China and Russia economically, politically, and socially?
-authoritarian
-democracy
What types of governments exist within each country?
-ring of fire
-geographic isolation
-cultural crossroads
-tsunami
-archipelago
-chokepoints
-indochina peninsula
How has physical geography impacted the development of the Pacific World?
-imperialism
-colonialism/european influence
-indigenous people
How did historical turning points in the Pacific World result in economic, social, and political change?
-mixed economy
-command economy
-capitalism
-authoritarian
-civil liberties
How do current government public policies impact the people of the Pacific World socially and economically?
-religious and cultural diversity: islam, buddhism
How do cultural traits unify and/or divide the people of the Pacific World?
-globalization
-mixed economies
-capitalism/market economies
What is the relationship between the countries of the Pacific World?
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