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72 terms

1MP History Interim Test Vocab

World History Unit 4 Interim Review Key Terms SA-SC.
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Artifacts
Objects including tools, clothing, works of art, weapons, and toys.
Culture
Set of beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people develops.
Nomads
Earlier people that wandered from place to place in search of food.
Agriculture
The raising of crops for food.
Domestication
The taming of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs.
Hunter-gatherers
Early people who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food.
Artisans
A class of skilled workers
Neolithic Agricultural revolution
Shift in human history from food gathering to food producing.
Irrigation
Dugged ditches and canals to move water from the river to their fields
Division of labor
As methods of farming improved, fewer people had to work the fields. some people could specialize in other kinds of work.
Cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area.
Geography
A science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface.
The Nile River
Longest river in the world. Flows from north to south, and provides a natural route for transportation.
Hieroglyphics
Form of ancient writing developed by Nile River valley people.
The Yellow River
Region in eastern asia.
Analects
Confucius' ideas and teachings in one work.
City-state
A form of community developed by the Sumerians
Monotheism
Believing in only one god
Mummification
When the body is presented to make life after death possible. organs were removed from the body, which was then treated with chemicals.
Reincarnation
The belief in the rebirth of souls.
Polytheism
Believing that many gods existed
Rosetta Stone
An unusual stone, found in the village of Rosetta. carved in this stone were passages written in Greek, Hieroglyphics, and Egyptian writing style called demote.
Ziggurat
Most striking Sumerian buildings that were temples. made of baked brick placed in layers.
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Fertile crescent
The Indus River
River that flows to the southwest
Bhagavad Gita
The Mahabharata tells the story of a great battle in a kingdom in what is now northern India. Part of this empire is known as the Bhagavad Gita.
Monsoon
Are winds that mark the seasons in India.
Caste-system
A complex form of social organization that began to take shape after the Indo-Aryan migration.
Scribe
Elite group of people that learned to read and write so that they could work for the government
Nirvana
A perfect peace.
Cuneiform
Sumerian writing from the Latin word for wedge, cuneus. Developed from pictographic writing
Empire
A form of government in which an individual or a single people rules over many other peoples and territories
Agora
Marketplace
Aristocracy
A government ruled by an upper class,
Delian League
An alliance of city-states with Athens as leader. Athens used diplomacy to form this.
Democracy
Government in which citizens take part.
Dramas
Plays containing action or dialogue and involving conflict and emotion.
Frescoes
Colorful paintings made on wet plaster walls.
Hellenistic
No longer purely Hellenistic, or Greek, this was a new "Greek-like" way of life.
Iliad
Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War.
Persian Wars
Conflicts between Greece and Persia.
Peloponnesian Wars
Quarrels over trade divided Athens and Corinth. Tensions grew between Athens and Sparta until war broke out in 431 B.C
Odyssey
Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War.
Parthenon
White marble temple built in ancient Athens in honor of Athena.
Philosophy
The study of basic questions of reality and human existance.
Tyrants
Illegally took power 650-500B.C. but had the support of the people
Republic
Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
Dictator
Absolute ruler.
Consuls
Chief officials. Led the army and were judges. Could appoint a dictator to lead for 6 months.
Veto
Refuse to approve, as in a bill or law.
Patricians
A small number of wealthy Roman families that held all governmental power.
Plebeians
Most of the population- artisans, shopkeepers, peasants, etc. A few were wealthy but most were poor
Punic Wars
Three costly conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion
Aqueducts
Bridge-like structures that carried water from the mountains.
Hippocrates
Lived between about 460B.C. and about 377B.C., is considered to be the founder of medical science.
Pythagoras
Was a philosopher who believed that everything could be explained in terms of mathematics.
Socrates
one of the most important thinkers of the new era that was an Athenian
Plato
A wealthy young aristocrat and the greatest of Socrates' students.
Aristotle
One of of Plato's students in the Academy. Was a young man who later taught Alexander the Great.
Pericles
Was a great general, orator, and statesman who held public office or was active in public life from 461 B.C.
Siddharta Gautama
Founder of Buddhism, another of the world's great religions, that also arose in India.
Confucius
A leading philosopher of the period, during Zhou era.
Homer
Blind poet that wrote the two epics "Iliad" and the "Odyssey"
Phillip II of Macedon
Young man that became king
Alexander the Great
Philip's 20-year-old son, who succeeded him in ruling. Conquered most of the Mediterranean and as far east as India.
Hannibal
One of the greatest generals of all time, who assembled a huge Carthaginian army that included foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants.
Julius Caesar
A nephew of Marius, who became the most popular general of his time.
Augustus
Grandnephew to Caesar that began the Roman Empire. The reign was known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace"
Cleopatra
Daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family, on the throne as a Roman ally.
Ovid
A poet that wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths written in verse.
Virgil
Lived during Augustus' reign, was the greatest of the Roman poets. His epic poem, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas, a prince of Troy.
Galen
Physician that wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day.