39 terms

Infection Control

unit 1&2
Pathways for Cross Contamination
patient to dental team, dental team to patient, patient to patient, dental office to community, community to patient
patient --> dental team
direct contact (saliva/blood) into openings,droplet infection(spray/splatter) into eye,nose,mouth etc, indirect contact(poke with used needle)
dental team --> patient
not following procedures (ex. no gloves with cuts on hands)
direct, indirect, droplet
patient --> patient
indirect contact (not sterilized equiptment)
dental office --> community
indirect contact (waste management, disinfection of appliances,laundry, handwashing
community --> patient
direct contact (water)
water source should be separate, should disinfect waterlines, water contain antimicrobial agent, filtering the water
Route of Microbial Transmission
1) pathogen 2) source (person w/infection) 3) Mode (how it is transmitted-door handle, saliva etc) 4) Entry (opening to body) 5) Susceptible Host (may not be vaccinated)
universal precautions
Treat all blood,saliva, and OPIM as infected
standard precations
treat all blood,saliva, OPIM, mucous membranes, non intact skin as infected
reccomendations vs. regulations
reccomendations are not law (made by individuals and groups with no authority) and regualtions are laws (have authority-state/local)
center for disease control and prevention
infection control in dentistry often follows this
not law
American Dental Association-supports the CDC
infection control reccomendations
not law
Organization for Safety and Asepsis Procedures
infection control education in dentistry
not law
Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation
develop sterilization methods and standards
not law
Food and Drug Administration -law
regulates and labels medical devices (gloves, masks, sterilizers etc) for safety
Environmental Protection Agency- law
control waste and regulate sterilizer
Occupational Safety and Health Administration- law
protects employees, bloodborne pathogen standard
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
OSHA- most important infection control law in dentistry to protect workers
Steps to Compliance to Bloodborne standard
1. review standard 2. written exposure plan 3. training of employees 4. Provide employees with everything needed(vaccinations,clean PPE,procedures,postexposure care,biohazard communication) 5. Maintain records
Written Exposure Plan components
1. exposure determination 2. schedule of implementation(inform,vaccinations,postexposure,records,PPE) 3. Evaluation of exposure incidnets-plan to evaluate exposure 4.Prevention of sharps injuries (devices and methods)
OSHA training
-accessible copy and explanation of bloodborne pathogen standard, exposure plans-inform about bloodborne pathogens,transmission,exposure plan, infection control, PPE,vaccinations,signs and labels-evaluations and answered questions
lab coat,gloves,masks,eyewear,sheild
barrier techniques
prevent contact w/microorganisms escaping from their sources
gloves-protection value
prevent direct contact w/microorganisms in patients mouth and contaminated surfaces and chemicals
protect patient from microorganisms on dental team hands
uses/types of gloves
patient care gloves-disposable gloves-latex,nitral,vinyl
overgloves-"food handlers gloves"
sterile gloves-for surgical procedures
utility gloves-not disposable-for cleaning and sterilizing
limitation of gloves
little protection from sharps
Reactions to gloves
irritant contact dermatitis-dry,red,itchy,cracked(not allergy)
allergic contact dermatitis-typeIV hypersentitivity,limited to areas of contact-itchy,red,vesicles,dry,sores
latex allergy-type I hypersensitivity
Preventing/managing latex allergies
avoid contact,latex free environment,include on patient medical history records,education about latex reactions
protective value of handwashing
resident flora-microorganisms that normally live on the skin and are temporarily reduced when handwash
transient flora-not normally on skin,pick up anywhere, removed during handwash
disease prevention procedure
steps of handwashing
1.remove jewelry 2.scrub hands,nails,forearms with soap 3.rinse with cool water 4.repeat 5.dry hands starting at fingertips
handwashing agents
plain soap-buy at store, used at home,bar or liquid
antimicrobial soap-prevents/removes microbes
alcohol based hand rub-hand sanitizer, can't use when visibly soild, but most effective
protective value of masks
protect mucous membranes of nose/mouth of dental team from spray/splatter of patient contaminated fluids
may protect patient from infectious of dental team
uses/types of masks
use during any procedure,changed with every patient,different levels of filtering
limitations of masks
not perfect seal around the edges,when becomes wet the air can flow more
protective value of eyewear
protect againts infections in spray/splatter/aerosols,physical damage to the eyes from propelled objects/chemicals, patients may wear also
uses/types of eyewear
wear whenever doing procedures,must fit properly and have side sheilds,sterilized between patients
protective value of protective clothing
protects the body(arms/chest) against infectious materials, helps from spreading to home,keeps from spreading from home to patients
types/uses of protective clothing
outer layer of clothing protecting uniform(lab coat)
wear whenever doing procedures to prevent contamination, change if visibly soiled,don't wear to lunch or out of op, can't take home
placing/removing barriers
putting on-protective clothing, eyewear, mask, gloves
removing-disposable gown,gloves,eyewear, mask