Forensic Psych Questions

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Although the textbook uses a broad definition of forensic psychology applicable to many topics, some psychologists define forensic psychology more narrowly, considering it a specialization of _____________ psychology.
clinical
Hugo Munsterberg is often considered the founder of what field?
Forensic psychology
During what period was there little scientific activity in forensic psychology?
From WWI to the 1970's.
Which of the following best corresponds to stare decisis?
"Let the decision stand"
When it comes to research's influence on court decisions, psychological research has
influence court decisions sometimes
In the case of Lockhart v. McCree (1986), the majority opinion by Justice Rehnquist contradicted psychological research and
upheld the use of death-qualified jurors.
The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised is
a rating scale, completed by a clinician after an interview with the subject.
Which of the following is the correct order of steps research
Hypothesis generation, empirical testing, statistical interpretation, peer review
Who always has the final say in determining an expert witness's admissibility?
The judge
The term "junk science," in the legal sense, refers to:
the use of questionable research methodologies to support an expert's preconceived opinions/views
It is almost impossible to prosecute an expert witness for ______
perjury.
Which of the following of Saks' classifications of expert-witnesses would be the most likely to agree with the statement "My central role is to share the most faithful picture of my field's knowledge with those who have been assigned the responsibility to make decisions"?
The mere conduit-educator
Which of the following of Saks' roles for expert witnesses would be most likely to agree with the statement "My primary responsibility is to present only information that agrees with my employer's values, not my own"?
The hired gun
In determining admissibility of expert testimony, which of the following uses criteria such as whether scientific evidence has been peer-reviewed, is testable, has a recognized rate of error, and adheres to professional standards?
The Daubert Rule
Which of the following best represents the danger of the advocate role in expert testimony?
It compromises the objectivity of the expert.
If a research study has high external/ecological validity (generalizability), it:
can be applied to "real life" situations, outside the lab
The truly interdisciplinary but independent relationship where neither the law or psychology is the dominant force in the partnership is called:
psychology and law
Aaron, a mechanic with 25 years of experience, has just been asked to testify in Federal court regarding a case of faulty brakes. Based on the Kumho Tire Co v. Carmichael decisions Aaron status as an expert will:
Be evaluated the using the same basic criteria as a psychologist or any other professional who is attempting to testify as an expert.
In a recent survey regarding juvenile delinquency a researcher found a strong correlation between single parent households and delinquent behavior in young males. Based on this data the researcher proposed that the cause of much of the delinquent behavior in young males is the result of in adequate caregiving in a single parent home and thus judges should not grant divorces when the couple has a young male child. What is wrong with this conclusion?
Everything, since the results are clearly correlational, showing only that as one increase so does the other, which says nothing about causal links. It may be that a third factors causes both to increase or decrease simultaneously.
Which of the following is the most commonly used psychological inventory for police selection?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Hargrave and Hiatt (1987) found that people portray themselves more__________ in face-to face interviews than on personality tests, resulting in more________________.
positively: poor risks being hired
Traditional police training programs have been criticized for narrowly upon aspects of the job associated with _______while ignoring_______.
criminal activity; human-relations skills
Seeking out consistencies in the personalities, backgrounds, and behaviors of who commit similar crimes describes what approach to criminal?
Determining common characteristics
Which of the following best describes a killer who has murdered on at two separate occasions, with no cooling-off periods between homicides?
Spree murderer
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of an organized serial murderer?
Keeping the body
Which of the following is NOT a type of false confession as discussed in Chapter 11?
Plea-bargaining
Which of the following is NOT a motivation for coerced-compliant confessions as discussed in Chapter 11?
Plea bargaining for previous crimes
The purpose of Kassin and Kiechel's (1996) study using computers and confederates was to
demonstrate that everyday subjects will confess to an undesirable action that they did not commit.
Police believe the presence of Miranda warnings
decreases conviction rates.
According to police handbooks, the main goal or goals of interrogation is/are
to gain information that furthers the investigation and to obtain a confession.
Which of the following statements is NOT an example of minimization?
a) "What you did is not at all that unusual." b) "You must have acted on the spur of the moment."
c) "You must not feel very guilty."
d) "I've seen thousands of cases like yours."
"You must not feel very guilty."
During a trial the prosecution has presented a confession by the defendant, in which the defendant admits to the crime but fails to give many specific details. The defense presented exculpatory evidence that it would have been very difficult for the suspect to commit the crime due to timing issues and an alibi. In addition, the suspect has since recanted the confession. The jury is most likely to:
Accept the confession and convict the defendant of the crime.
The research literature from industrial/organizational psychology on the use of the clinical interview process in police selection
gives no indication that the interview is a valid predictor of job performance.
Which of the following is NOT a reason why criminal profiling is considered separate from forensic psychology?
A. Training in criminal profiling has historically been controlled by the FBI.
B. There are more jobs than applicants to fill the positions.
C. Most profilers have not done graduate study in psychology.
D. Even experienced profilers acknowledge that profiling is more art than science.
There are more jobs than applicants to fill the positions.
Ted Bundy planned his abductions, carefully selected his victims, and used verbal manipulation to gain their trust. He murdered on many separate occasions, with cooling-off periods between homicides. Which of the following best describes him?
Organized serial murderer
In 1989, federal agents stopped 600 people matching the profile of a drug courier. How many were arrested?
10
In Dickerson v. United States (2002), the Supreme Court decided
the Miranda warnings still need to be given by police officers.
Leading the suspect to believe that ______ is the tactical goal to gain a confession.
a confession would be beneficial
In the Control Question Technique of polygraph examination, a(n)______________will respond_________to control questions as/than crime-related questions.
guilty person; less
Which of the following is not an estimator variable in eyewitness identification?

a) Emotional state of the witness

b) Surveillance video

c) The amount of violence in the crime

d) The physical state of the witness
Surveillance video
Regarding violent and nonviolent events, people

a) are more accurate in reporting violent events.

b) are more accurate in reporting nonviolent events.

c) are extremely accurate in reporting both types of events.

d) are extremely inaccurate in reporting both types of events.
are more accurate in reporting nonviolent events.
According to Chapter 10, forensic psychologists should assist police in improving _______variables in eyewitness interviewing because this type of variable can lead to preventable errors.
system
Which of the following is NOT an error which is almost universally committed by police officers when interviewing witnesses and victims?
a) Asking too many short-answer questions
b) Allowing the witness to speak too much and ramble
c) Using an inappropriate sequence in asking questions
d) Interrupting the witness
Allowing the witness to speak too much and ramble
An interview procedure that is not recommended to assist in the memory of witnesses because it can create demand characteristics is to

a) interrupt the witness.

b) repeat a question not answered the first time.

c) slow down the rate of questioning.

d) use a cognitive interview.
repeat a question not answered the first time.
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of a photo array over a traditional police lineup?

a) Portability

b) The higher degree of realism

c) The control over the behavior of lineup members

d) Lessened anxiety by witnesses
The higher degree of realism
When a witness selects a stimulus person who most resembles, in the witness's memory, the perpetrator of the crime, this effect is known as

a) foil contamination.

b) unconscious transference.

c) relative judgment.

d) state-dependent learning.
relative judgment
Jurors' beliefs about eyewitness testimony tend to
a) agree with experts.
b) be misinformed about the confidence-accuracy relationship.
c) overestimate the weapons effect.
d) underestimate the ability of people to remember stranger's
be misinformed about the confidence-accuracy relationship.
The cognitive model for the source of non-verbal cues of deception proposes that

a) As we tell a lie, emotions like fear, guilt, and/or excitement leak out in our non-verbal behaviors through nervousness.

b) The process of lying requires greater mental effort than telling the truth and thus reduces non-verbal behaviors.

c) We don't know how to fake our non-verbal behaviors so to avoid detection we limit their use.
The process of lying requires greater mental effort than telling the truth and thus reduces non-verbal behaviors.
A polygraph shows Ken is lying about committing a murder, when in fact he is innocent. This is an example of:

a) True negative

b) True positive

c) False negative

d) False positive
False positive
A witness identifies Kathy as the perpetrator of a crime that Kathy did not commit. The witness saw Kathy's picture in a photo lineup of suspects, though, and has mistakenly replaced the face of the actual criminal with Kathy's face when remembering the crime. This is an example of

A. the Fisher effect.

B. projective memory.

C. unconscious transference.

D. Holmes' law.
unconscious transference.
In the Control Question Technique of the polygraph examination, responses to control questions

A. help put the subject at ease between critical questions.

B. are more extreme in guilty subjects.

C. provide a baseline for the subject's reactivity.

D. are those which always elicit the most arousal.
provide a baseline for the subject's reactivity
Under hypnosis induced by Martin Orne, Kenneth Bianchi (a suspect in the Hillside Strangler murders).

A. provided key evidence exonerating himself of the crime.

B. engaged in behavior suggesting he was malingering.

C. regressed to a past life for an explanation of his crime.

D. provided evidence that convinced Orne that Bianchi had multiple-personality disorder.
engaged in behavior suggesting he was malingering
A suspect is attached to the polygraph apparatus and asked specific questions about the crime. The questions deal with aspects of the crime only known by the police and the actual law-breaker (i.e. the type of weapon used to commit the crime). The subject's responses are analyzed to see if he committed the crime. Which procedure is this?

a) Relevant/Irrelevant test

b) Control question test

c) Directed lie test

d) Guilty knowledge test
Guilty knowledge test
When using non-verbal behaviors to assess deception it is common to use eye-contact or lack thereof. What does research on the detection of deception using non-verbal cues say about the eyes as a source of information of deception?

a) In the interrogation room the eye, particularly gaze, can be very useful in detect deception.

b) Eye contact and movement are ineffective in detecting deception.

c) The eyes are the window to the soul and as such a perfect indicator of deception.

d) For highly emotional crimes the eyes leak tears that are indicative of deception.
Eye contact and movement are ineffective in detecting deception.
Ann has just testified about a robbery she witnessed at a local convenience store. When asked if she saw who the robber was, she replied, "Yes, it was him!" and pointed to the defendant. When asked how sure she was that the robber was the defendant, she said "100%, there is no doubt in my mind it was him." Based on the research regarding the accuracy of witnesses who tell their story with confidence, we could expect:

a) Ann's testimony to be usually inaccurate

b) The jurors to believe Ann's version of the events

c) Ann's testimony to be more accurate than those who are hesitant and less confident

d) None of the above
The jurors to believe Ann's version of the events
The position of the American Psychological Association's working group on repressed or recovered memories is reflected in which of the following statements?

A. Most people who are sexually abused as children remember all or part of what happened to them.

B. It is possible for memories of abuse that have been forgotten for a long time to be remembered.

C. Both of the above statements

D. Neither of the above two statements
Both of the above statements
An investigator considers the statements made by a child in a case of alleged sexual abuse to determine if they are truthful or untruthful. Particular emphasis is placed on whether the statement seems coherent, has sufficient detail, and seems spontaneous rather than rehearsed. Which procedure is being used here?

A. Statement Validity Checklist

B. Criteria-based content analysis

C. SIRR technique

D. M scale
Criteria-based content analysis
If a psychologist who acted as a couple's marriage counselor advised the judge on custody when the couple divorced, they would have

served the best interests of the child.

served as a mediator.

a dual relationship.

broken the law.
a dual relationship.
A joint custody arrangement is

never better for the child.

always better for the child.

best if mandated by the court.

best if voluntarily chosen.
best if voluntarily chosen.
Sam (who is 19) has just been cited for underage drinking after his friends posted a picture of him with a beer in his hands on Facebook. An offence like underage drinking, where the legality of the act depends on the age of the individual is know as:

Due process

A statuary transfer

Double jeopardy

A status offense
A status offense
How often, when judges have to make a decision about child custody in a divorce, do they consult a psychologist for an evaluation?

Never

Rarely

Frequently

In almost every case
Rarely
Judges who deny parental rights to a homosexual parent may believe

homosexuality is associated with a mental illness.

children reared by homosexual parents will have an unclear gender identity.

children reared by homosexual parents are more likely to become homosexual themselves.

All of the above
All of the above
Custody is contested in ________ of divorces.

almost all

a majority

about half

a minority
a minority
Until the early 1900s, the member of the family who had the legal right to determine the custody of the child, in a divorce, was

the child himself or herself.

the mother.

the father.

the state.
the father.
In the tender-years doctrine, who is considered to be the natural custodian of a child of tender years?

The grandmother (mother's mother)

The father

The mother

The state
The mother
For joint custody to work beneficially for children, parents must

be able to empathize with the child.

trust the other parent's parenting skills.

separate their own feelings about the other parent from the child's needs.

all of the above
all of the above
In the In re Gault case from Arizona in 1967. The Supreme Court ruled that juveniles, like Gualt, have:

The right to a jury trial

A grand jury hearing

Confront/question witnesses

Double jeopardy protection
Confront/question witnesses
Most of the current research that examines the issue of rehabilitation for juvenile offenders finds that:

Any program designed to reduce recidivism rates must include a multi-contextual approach, including skills development and family counseling.

Boot camps and other programs that are intended to build characters are highly successful at reducing recidivism rates.

Programs that scare juveniles straight are very effective at deterring future delinquent behavior.

Programs that focus on biological or physiological foundations of juvenile delinquency are most effective.
Any program designed to reduce recidivism rates must include a multi-contextual approach, including skills development and family counseling.
Current research on boot camps for juvenile offenders has identified that the camps:

Are effective at reducing recidivism rates.

Are more effective than any other program at prevent first time offenders from reoffending.

Increase the academic performance of those who complete the program.

All of the above
Increase the academic performance of those who complete the program.
In a child custody evaluation, clinical psychologists are expected to

diagnose any disorder the child might have.

diagnose any disorder the parents might have.

determine what is in the best interest of the child.

determine the preferences of the child.
determine what is in the best interest of the child.
Following the Roper decision in 2005, a juvenile can not be give the death penalty for crimes committed before the age of:

21

18

15

16
18
In the McKeiver v. Pennsylvania case, the questions was if McKeiver had a right to a jury trial, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that:

McKeiver did not have a Constitutional right to a jury trial.

To try McKeiver in adult court after an acquittal in juvenile court is double jeopardy.

McKeiver had a Constitutional right to a jury trial.

Juveniles have ALL the same due process rights as adult defendants do.
McKeiver did not have a Constitutional right to a jury trial.
When a psychologist gives a recommendation on the best custody arrangement, they are acting as a

mediator.

fact witness.

court-appointed evaluator.

advocate.
court-appointed evaluator.
A comprehensive procedure that uses testing, observation, and interviewers with each parent and child, as part of custody evaluation is the

Ackerman-Schoendorf Scales for Parent Evaluation of Custody.

Parent-Child Relationship Inventory.

Parenting Stress Index.

Parenting Satisfaction Scale.
Ackerman-Schoendorf Scales for Parent Evaluation of Custody.
The purpose of the ______________ is to assess the type and severity of stresses associated with the child-rearing role.

Parenting Satisfaction Scale

Parent-Child Relationship Inventory

Ackerman-Schoendorf Scales for Parent Evaluation of Custody

Parenting Stress Index
Parenting Stress Index
Distinguishing between right and wrong is central to which definition of insanity?
Question options:

A. Durham rule

B. M'Naghten rule

C. ALI standard

D. None of these
...
The plea not guilty by reason of insanity is most often used by those who

A. commit major offenses.

B. commit less serious acts.

C. can afford quality legal representation

D. have to use public defenders.
commit less serious acts
Which definition of insanity includes two prongs, a cognitive aspect and a volitional aspect?
A. ALI standard

B. McNaughton rule

C. Durham rule

D. GBMI standard
ALI standard
Mens rea means
the mental state of knowing the nature and quality of a forbidden act, or a guilty mind
The M'Naghten test is called a cognitive test of insanity because
it emphasizes the person's thought processes and perceptions of reality.
What does a peremptory challenge do?
A. Strike testimony from the record

B. Change the venue of a trial

C. Make evidence inadmissible

D. Dismiss a prospective juror
Dismiss a prospective juror
What happens in sequestered voir dire
The judge questions jurors individually.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a juror favoring the prosecution?
A. Trust in authority

B. Belief in a just world

C. Sympathy with the underprivileged

D. Acquiescent responding
Sympathy with the underprivileged
Tina runs a program that works with defendants regarding their understanding of the legal system, ability to communicate with their attorney, and problem solve. Tina's program is intended to facilitate:
Defendants found incompetent to become classified as competent.
Anne, a juror in a murder trial, believes that the defendant must be guilty even though there is very little evidence against him. During deliberations she states, "Why else would the police arrest him, he must have done something." Anne is demonstrating/expressing:
The just world hypothesis.
Bill is a defendant being charged with murder. The district attorney is asking for the death penalty in the case. In order to be a juror for this murder trial an individual must:
Be willing to consider the death penalty should they find Bill guilty of murder.
Sarah is the attorney representing a defendant charged with arson. She is trying to present a "not guilty by reason of insanity" defense, based on her client not being able to conform his behavior. It is clear he understood it was wrong to set fires but, because of childhood trauma that has resulting in a mental disorder, he claims he is unable to resist the urge to set fires. Which prong of the insanity defense Sarah trying to evoke?
Volition prong
As a general principle, based on research evidence, who among the following are most likely to reach a guilty verdict?
authoritarian personalities
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