People grouped according to economic or social class; characterized by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige.
social structure theories
social and economic forces operating in deteriorated lower-class areas are the key determinant of criminal behavior patterns.
social disorganization theory
this theory focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect crime rates
theory that holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally.
anger, frustration, resentment
cultural deviance theory
third vairation of structural theory, combines elements of strain and social disorganization
A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions
the quality or condition of being uncivil; discourteous behavior or treatment.
mindset in which the outside world is considered the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
mutual trust, willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and the maintenance of public order
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
durkheims term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from people needing others to fulfill their jobs; solidarity based on the interdependence brought about by the division of labour
general strain theory
The view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality.
negative affective states
Anger, frustration, and adverse emotions produced by a variety of sources of strain.
rules governing day-to-day living conditions within subcultures
The state that occurs when people become aware of cultural differences, and become afraid and start to ridicule others for theirs beliefs to start to make themselves feel more secure.
Central values and goals that, according to Walter Miller, differ by social class.
a form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society
middle-class measuring rods
standards set by authority figures which handi-cap lower class children in being able to positively impress said authorities according to Cohen
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
The view that lower class youths, who legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs, and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals