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Why did English, French and Spanish settlers come to the Americas?

-To flee Europe's deadly epidemics
-For an opportunity to seek riches
-To be masters of their own labor

By the 1560s, Spain's main focus in N America was to

prevent other European states from establishing bases there, which could threaten Spain's power

In the 1570s, Spain put the task of Indian pacification primarily in the hands of


The Spanish Franciscan Missionaries

Tried to impose cultural assimilation and forced labor along with religious conversion of indigenous peoples

Characteristics of native americans' response to enforce Christianization in the Spanish Franciscan missions during the 17th century

They tolerated the teachings of the missionaries but returned to their traditional gods when disaster struck their communities

Which of the following most encouraged migrants to New France?

Generous terms for indentured servitude



As a result of the presence of French traders and explorers in the Great Lakes region during the 17th century

a devastating series of wars erupted among tribes vying for the opportunity to trade animal skins for European-manufactured goods

In contrast to the Spanish missionaries, the French jesuits

tried to understand the Indians' values and worldview

Colonization was similar for the French and Spanish in that both

were concerned with Christianizing the native peoples

Why did the Dutch merchants send Harry Hudson to N America?

to locate a new source of fur

The Dutch colony of New Netherland

failed to attract many settlers

The successful early English settlements were financed by


The economic livelihood of Virginia in the 1700s was based on


During their first couple of years in the Jamestown colony, the English migrants

suffered from famine and diseases that killed more than half the population

Powhatan, leader of a confederation of about two dozen tribes in Virginia

treated the English as potential allies and attempted to integrate the into his chiefdom

The Virginia colonist John Rolfe

introduced tobacco production in the colony

Result from the surprise Indian attack on the Virginia colony in 1622

James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company and made it a royal colony

Common characteristic of royal colonies throughout English America

-Appointed governors
-Elected assemblies
-An established Anglican church

Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of Maryland, established that colony as a haven for


The new colony of Maryland

was a democracy from the outset, with full religious freedom

What effect did American tobacco have in England during the early colonial period?

Although King James I initially condemned it, he later became a heavy smoker

What characterizes life in the 17th century Chesapeake region?

Disease took such a toll that most children lost at least one parent before their 18th birthday

In early Virginia and Maryland, most indentured servants

did not escape from poverty

Africans in Virginia after the 1660s

Africans were required to join local militias whenever a war with Indians erupted

The Navigation Acts

permitted only English or colonial-owned ships to enter colonial ports

Life in the Chesapeake region after 1660

A wealthy, planter-merchant elite dominated the Chesapeake economy and owned half the land in Virginia

The economic life of the Chesapeake region was dominated by


William Berkeley

aroused great resentment because of his corruption and political favoritism while governor of Virginia

Bacon's Rebellion

showed how dissatisfied the western settlers of Virginia had become with the emerging planter-merchant elite

What was the consequence of Bacon's Rebellion?

-Slavery began to replace indentured servitude
-Taxes on yeomen and tenant farmers were lowered
-Indians were removed from their treaty-guaranteed land along the frontier

The Indian Uprising and Bacon's Rebellion were similar in that both

led changed in the structure of the colony's government

Why did Plymouth begin to thrive after its first year while Jamestown struggled for years?

-The colder climate in Plymouth limited the spread of mosquito-bourne diseases
-The religious discipline of the Plymouth settlers encouraged a stronger work ethic
-A smallpox epidemic killed most of the local Wampanoag Indians near Plymouth

Description of Plymouth colony

Unlike the adventurers who settled Virginia, the Pilgrims built small, solid houses and planted ample crops

When they settled in the New World, the Puritans

pictured themselves as a select few chosen by God to preserve true Christianity in America

The "City upon a hill" referred to

Massachusetts Bay

One reason Roger Wilson was banished from Massachusetts Bay was the he

questioned the morality and legality of the English seizure of native people's land

Anne Hutchinson

was accused of heresy for teaching that believers did not need to obey church rules

Which New England colony required church membership in order to be able to vote?

Massachusetts Bay

Common characteristic of both the Massachusetts Bay and the Connecticut Colonies?

Their governments were controlled by landholding aristocracy

The most religiously tolerant colonies were

Rhode Island and Maryland

What caused the Puritans' "errand into the wilderness" to become permanent?

the failure of the English Revolution

Devout Puritans, such as Cotton Mather,

regularly explained unusual events as the result of supernatural forces

The majority of persons arrested on charges of witchcraft in Salem

were women

The Salem witchcraft trials were caused by

-Economic tensions between poorer and wealthier residents
-A broader Puritan effort to subordinate women
-Political instability in Massachusetts Bay

The largest landholdings in New England usually belonged to wealthier families because

men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land grants from their towns

The Pequot Indians

attacked English farmers who had intruded onto their lands and then experienced near-extermination by a Puritan militia

The Puritans justified their invasion of the Native Americans' land by

interpreting epidemics that devastated Native American populations as a favorable sign from God

The Puritans believed that Native Americans

had been placed in America by the devil to prevent the spread of the Gospel there

What characterizes the New England Puritans' attitude and/or behavior toward Native Americans?

The Puritans set very high standards for Indian converts and, therefore, only a few Indians became full church members

Metacom's Rebellion (King Philip's War) was

an attempt to save Indian lands and culture in New England

Metacom's Rebellion resulted in the

death of about 25% of the Wampanoag Narragansett, and Nipmuck populations

An unforeseen consequence of the Indian trade with the Europeans was that

the native peoples lost their cultural and economical independence

A result of the fur trade in N America was

-Wars among Indian tribes
-A complex and contradictory change in the status of women among the Eastern woodland Indians
-A profound altering of the environment

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