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Why did English, French and Spanish settlers come to the Americas?
-To flee Europe's deadly epidemics
-For an opportunity to seek riches
-To be masters of their own labor
By the 1560s, Spain's main focus in N America was to
prevent other European states from establishing bases there, which could threaten Spain's power
The Spanish Franciscan Missionaries
Tried to impose cultural assimilation and forced labor along with religious conversion of indigenous peoples
Characteristics of native americans' response to enforce Christianization in the Spanish Franciscan missions during the 17th century
They tolerated the teachings of the missionaries but returned to their traditional gods when disaster struck their communities
Which of the following most encouraged migrants to New France?
Generous terms for indentured servitude
As a result of the presence of French traders and explorers in the Great Lakes region during the 17th century
a devastating series of wars erupted among tribes vying for the opportunity to trade animal skins for European-manufactured goods
In contrast to the Spanish missionaries, the French jesuits
tried to understand the Indians' values and worldview
Colonization was similar for the French and Spanish in that both
were concerned with Christianizing the native peoples
During their first couple of years in the Jamestown colony, the English migrants
suffered from famine and diseases that killed more than half the population
Powhatan, leader of a confederation of about two dozen tribes in Virginia
treated the English as potential allies and attempted to integrate the into his chiefdom
Result from the surprise Indian attack on the Virginia colony in 1622
James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company and made it a royal colony
Common characteristic of royal colonies throughout English America
-An established Anglican church
What effect did American tobacco have in England during the early colonial period?
Although King James I initially condemned it, he later became a heavy smoker
What characterizes life in the 17th century Chesapeake region?
Disease took such a toll that most children lost at least one parent before their 18th birthday
Africans in Virginia after the 1660s
Africans were required to join local militias whenever a war with Indians erupted
Life in the Chesapeake region after 1660
A wealthy, planter-merchant elite dominated the Chesapeake economy and owned half the land in Virginia
aroused great resentment because of his corruption and political favoritism while governor of Virginia
showed how dissatisfied the western settlers of Virginia had become with the emerging planter-merchant elite
What was the consequence of Bacon's Rebellion?
-Slavery began to replace indentured servitude
-Taxes on yeomen and tenant farmers were lowered
-Indians were removed from their treaty-guaranteed land along the frontier
The Indian Uprising and Bacon's Rebellion were similar in that both
led changed in the structure of the colony's government
Why did Plymouth begin to thrive after its first year while Jamestown struggled for years?
-The colder climate in Plymouth limited the spread of mosquito-bourne diseases
-The religious discipline of the Plymouth settlers encouraged a stronger work ethic
-A smallpox epidemic killed most of the local Wampanoag Indians near Plymouth
Description of Plymouth colony
Unlike the adventurers who settled Virginia, the Pilgrims built small, solid houses and planted ample crops
When they settled in the New World, the Puritans
pictured themselves as a select few chosen by God to preserve true Christianity in America
One reason Roger Wilson was banished from Massachusetts Bay was the he
questioned the morality and legality of the English seizure of native people's land
Common characteristic of both the Massachusetts Bay and the Connecticut Colonies?
Their governments were controlled by landholding aristocracy
What caused the Puritans' "errand into the wilderness" to become permanent?
the failure of the English Revolution
Devout Puritans, such as Cotton Mather,
regularly explained unusual events as the result of supernatural forces
The Salem witchcraft trials were caused by
-Economic tensions between poorer and wealthier residents
-A broader Puritan effort to subordinate women
-Political instability in Massachusetts Bay
The largest landholdings in New England usually belonged to wealthier families because
men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land grants from their towns
The Pequot Indians
attacked English farmers who had intruded onto their lands and then experienced near-extermination by a Puritan militia
The Puritans justified their invasion of the Native Americans' land by
interpreting epidemics that devastated Native American populations as a favorable sign from God
The Puritans believed that Native Americans
had been placed in America by the devil to prevent the spread of the Gospel there
What characterizes the New England Puritans' attitude and/or behavior toward Native Americans?
The Puritans set very high standards for Indian converts and, therefore, only a few Indians became full church members
Metacom's Rebellion (King Philip's War) was
an attempt to save Indian lands and culture in New England
Metacom's Rebellion resulted in the
death of about 25% of the Wampanoag Narragansett, and Nipmuck populations
An unforeseen consequence of the Indian trade with the Europeans was that
the native peoples lost their cultural and economical independence
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