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Nature of the British empire before 1660?

The British ruled in a haphazard and lax manner

Restoration colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the Carolinas

They were created when Charles II ascended the throne after Cromwell's dictatorial rule

Characteristic of the settlement of N and S Carolina

The proprietors planned to set up a feudal type of government, but this plan failed

The first colonists who settled South Carolina and introduced racial slavery arrived from


Which action by S Carolina contributed the the settlements' violent, frontier nature?

They encouraged their native allies to raid other native peoples for slaves

Which colony was established as a haven for Quakers?


Which is true about the Quaker religion

It taught that God imbued all men and women with an "inner light" of grace

The colony of Pennsylvania

-All property-owning men could vote and hold office
-There was no established church
-It was one of the most ethnically diverse colonies in British N America

The original purpose of the Navigation Acts was to

cut the Dutch and French out of the colonial trade

The Navigation Acts

required colonists to import any European goods through England

As a result of the Navigation Acts

French and Dutch naval fleets launched a series of devastating attacks against English shippers

Change in English economic philosophy toward the colonies beginning in the 1650s

No longer content with a favorable balance of trade with European countries, the English government was determined to regulate trade with the colonies

As part of its mercantilistic policies, England

drove the Dutch from New Netherland

Lancaster, Pennsylvania


A major crisis for Puritans in Massachusetts in the 17th century was

the annulment of the Massachusetts' charter

The purpose of the Dominion of New England was to

strengthen royal control of the American colonies

The Dominion of New England angered colonists by

-Abolishing existing colonial legislatures
-Banning town hall meetings
-Requiring colonists in Massachusetts to pay an annual fee for new land titles

What resulted in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution?

-Plymouth, Maine, and Massachusetts Bay were joined to create a new royal colony
-All male property owners in the Massachusetts colony were given the right to vote
-Puritan restrictions on the Church of England were eliminated

In Maryland, the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution was characterized by

religious conflict that led to the establishment of the Church of England as the official church

Leisler's Rebellion

began as a revolt against the Dominion of New England

The Glorious Revolution in England and in America

led to a period of lax British rule of its American colonies with few new laws or taxes

What characterizes the impact of the War for Spanish Succession in the SE

The Creek nation used the European war to expand its power into northern Florida and N Carolina

When the early 18th century Anglo-French wars temporarily ended with the Treaty of Utrecht, Britain had

won major territorial and commercial gains, including Newfoundland, Acadia, and the Hudson Bay region as well as access to the Indian trade

The primary product of the South Atlantic System was


The area that imported the least number of slaves was

N America

What characterizes the impact of the Slave Trade on Africa?

The goods European traded to Africa were worth only 1/10 to 1/3 of the value of the goods the slaves produced

What characterizes the African states' involvement in the Atlantic slave trade?

The Asante kings used the profits of slave trading to expand their political dominion

The transatlantic slave trade resulted in

polygamy in many African societies

The Middle Passage refers to

the slaves' perilous journey to America across the Atlantic Ocean

The experience of enslaved West Africans on their voyage to the Americans included

widespread disease, malnutrition, and death

What characterizes the life in the West Indies for slaves in the 1700s?

Because the price of slaves was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves

The "tobacco revolution" in Virginia and Maryland led to

the creation of a slave-based plantation economy

Commonality among tobacco, rice, and sugar production?

Each drove the expansion of the slave trade for a time

What did slaves in the Chesapeake do in response to their situation?

-Some slaves ran away to the frontier or tried to join Indian tribes
-Some English-speaking slaves fled to towns and tried to pass as free blacks
-Some slaves resisted silently and a few turned to violence

What method did planters use in the early 18th century to prevent slave revolts?

They brought slaves of different ethnic backgrounds so slaves could not understand each other

The Stono Rebellion occurred because

the Spanish governor in Florida had promised freedom and land to slaves who escaped from their English owners

After the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina planters

imported fewer Africans

The largest slave uprising in the 18th century was

the Stono Rebellion

American colonies in the 18th century

Slaves created a sophisticated culture with extended kin relationships and traditions

What changed occurred in white society in the Chesapeake colonies at the same time that slavery was being forced on Africans?

A more rigid class structure with a more well-defined elite began to emerge

From 1676 to 1750, the Virginia gentry

urged even small landholders to purchase slaves and thus support the slavery

What colony would most like model themselves after the English aristocracy in the 18th century?

Chesapeake landowners

What characterizes the colonial shipbuilding industry during the early 18th century?

Colonial-built ships eventually made up about a third of the British merchant fleet

The English colonies were linked primarily by


What described 17th century urban society in seaport cities?

-Wealthy merchants dominated society and copied the ways of the British upper classes
-Artisan and shopkeeper families were about half of the population
-Laboring mena and women often had to compete with indentured servants and slaves

The colonists enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy over their royal governors due to

their ability to withhold a governor's salary

Colonial legislatures

began limiting the powers of crown officials and royal governors

Salutary neglect

afforded colonists the opportunity to develop economic autonomy and their own political institutions

The British policy of salutary neglect of the American colonies in the early 18th century meant

relaxing their supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies

Sir Robert Walpole weakened imperial rule in America by

appointing men of little talent to the Board of Trade, which weakened respect for the royal government

Parliament subsidized the new colony of Georgia because

it was meant a refuge for the poor

War broke out between England and Spain in the late 1730s because

Spain was angry over the English settlement of Georgia

The mercantilistic policies pursued by the British government during the 18th century called for the American colonies to produce

agricultural good and raw materials

The Americans major objection to the Navigation Acts was that the colonists were

required to export tobacco only to England unless there was a surplus

Which of the Navigation Acts was violated by the colonists?

Molasses Act

The Molasses Act was designed to

help sugar plantations in the British West Indies

American merchants' reaction to the Molasses Act of 1733 was to

ignore it and continue to export shiploads of French molasses

What characterizes the colonial currency problems of the early and mid 18th century?

The lack of currency in the colonies led New England States to issue paper money, which English creditors increasingly refused to accept

What was not a change in the British colonies and England's power between 1675-1750?

the creation of a strong system of British political control over the American colonies

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