English Review Flash Cards
10th Grade Review Flashcards-PRE ACT TEST.
Terms in this set (92)
A word that shows action, links another word to the subject, helps another verb, or merely indicates existence.
A word that names a person, place, thing, or idea
A word that takes the place of a noun(he,she,it,who,that,etc.).
A word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers the questions what kind, which one, how many, how much, or whose.
A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It answers the questions where, when, how, how often, to what extent. Adverbs modify verbs most of the time.
A word that shows how a noun or a pronoun is related to some other word in the sentence(behind, by,in,near,on,to,upon,etc.).
A word(or word group) that joins words, phrases, or clauses ( and, but or, neither-nor, as long as, in order that, etc.).
An exclamatory word that is not grammatically related to the other words in a sentence. An exclamation point is often used after an interjection, but a comma may be used after a mild interjection. Words commonly used as other parts of speech may be used as interjections. (Ouch!; Listen!; My!; Certainly!)
The Four Types of Sentences classified according to structure.
Simple, Compound, Complex, and Compound-Complex.
All Verbs may be classified as ______
All verbs may be classified as regular or irregular verbs, depending on the way the past and past participle are formed.
Regular Verbs can form _________ and _________
Regular Verbs can form the past and past participle by adding -ed,-d, or -t to the present.
Irregular Verbs form the __________ and ________ in Irregular ways.
Irregular verbs form the past and past participle in irregular ways. (Any verb that does not form tis past and past participle by adding -ed, -d, or -t, to the present is an irregular verb)
Both regular and irregular verbs form the present participle by adding -ing to the present.
What is an action verb?
An action verb expresses physical or mental action.
Note : Some action verbs have receivers for the action; others do not.
What is a linking verb?
A linking verb does not express action; it links a word in the predicate to the subject.
Linking Verbs :
Am, Are, Appear; Be, Become, Been, Being; Feel; Grow; Is;Look;Remain;Stay,Seem,Smell, Sound;Taste and Were.
The Verbs am,is,are,was,were,be,ring,been are forms of the verb "be". These "be" verbs are used as helping verbs as well as linking verbs.
Any verb that ends with be or been is a form of the verb "be". The verbs taste, feel, smell, sound, look, appear, become, seem, grow, remain, and stay may be used as action verbs as well as linking verbs, deeding on the sense of the sentence.
What is a helping verb?
A helping verb helps the main verb to make a statement. The Helping Verbs : Am, Are; Be, Being, Been; Can, Could; Do, Does,Did; Have, Has, Had; May, Might, Must; Shall, Should; Were, Will, and Would
A verb phrase is a main verb and its helping verbs.
A verbal is a verb form used as some other part of speech.
A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. It modifies a noun or a pronoun. Present Participles end in -ing. Past participles often end in -d, -ed, -t, or -en.
A verb form used as a noun. Like nouns, gerunds can be used as subjects, direct objects, objects of prepositions, predicated nominatives, and appositives. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plugs any complements or modifiers.
An infinitive is a verb form used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Like nouns, infinitives can be used as subjects, direct objects, objects of prepositions, predicated nominatives, and appositives.
A sentence isa group of words that expressed a complete thought. It always has a subject and a predicate.
Complete Subject of a Sentence
The complete subject of a sentence is that part about which something is said.
Complete Predicate of a Sentence
The complete predicate of a sentence is that part that says something about the subject.
Simple Predicate of a Sentence
The simple predicate of a sentence is the main word or group of words in the complete predicate.
The verb phrase is a main verb and its helping verbs.
A declarative sentence makes a statement. It ends with a period.
An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. It ends with a period or an exclamation point.
An interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark.
An exclamatory sentence shows sudden or strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation point.
The Verb "Sit" means...
The verb sit means "to be seated". Its principle parts are sit, sitting, sat, (have) sat. The verb sit is usually intransitive: it has no receiver for its action.
The Verb "Set" means....
The verb set means "to put or place something. Its principal parts are set,setting, set, (have) set. The verb set is usually transitive : it has a receiver for its action.
The Verb "Rise" means...
The verb rise means "to go up" or "to get up". Its principle parts are rise,rising,rose, (have) risen. The verb rise is intransitive : it has no receiver for its action.
The Verb "Raise" means...
The verb raise means "to lift something" or "to push something". Its principal parts are raise, raising, raised, (have) raised. The verb raise is transitive: it has a receiver for its action.
Transitive Verb. Using Active and Passive Voice.
If the subject is doing the action, the transitive verb is in the active voice. If the subject is receiving the action, the transitive verb is in the passive voice. When the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice, the object of there verb becomes the subject, and the subject becomes the object of a preposition.
The Verb "Lie" means...
The verb lie means "to recline". Its principal parts are lie, lying,lay, (have lain. The verb lie is intransitive: it has no receiver for its action.
The Verb "Lay" means...
The verb lay means " to put or place something". Its principal parts are lay, laying, laid, (have) laid. The verb lay is transitive: it has a receiver for its action.
Affect or effect?
Affect means " to influence". Effect means "to accomplish".
Bring or take?
Bring indicates movement toward you. Take indicated movement away from you.
Can or may?
Can refers to ability. May refers to permission.
Imply or infer?
Imply means " to suggest". Infer means "to draw a conclusion from evidence."
Lean or teach?
Learn means "to obtain knowledge". Teach means "to give knowledge."
Let or leave?
Let means "to allow". Leave means "to go away from" or "to cause to remain".
A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea.
A compound noun is two or more words used as a single noun.
A collective noun names a group and is singular in form.
A common noun names a person, place, thing or idea, but does not say which particular one.
A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing and always beings with a capital letter.
A Noun (or a pronoun) that follows a linking verb and renames or explains the subject. This noun (or pronoun) means the same thing or person as the subject. Predicate Nominatives can never be in prepositional phrases. Sometimes, A Predicate Nominative can be called a subject complement. Subject complements always follow linking verbs.
A direct object is a noun(or a pronoun) that follows an action verb and receives the action from that verb. It answers the questions whom or what after the verb. Direct Objects can never be in prepositional phrases. Direct objects may be compound.
Whats a "Phrase "?
A phrase is a group or related words that does not contain a verb or subject. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, its noun, object, and any modifiers of the object. Prepositional phrases can have compound objects.
What is a "Clause" ?
A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. It is used as part of a sentence... ( To determine the correct case of a pronoun and other nouns, you must first determine its use in its own clause)
Expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
Does not Express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Noun Clauses are introduced by signal words such as the following : that,whether,if,who,whom,whose,which,what,when,where,why,how,whoever,whomever,whichever, and whatever.
A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Pronouns can be used as predicate nominatives, objects of prepositions, and appositives.
An antecedent is the word for which a pronoun stands. There are various kinds of pronouns. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number and gender.
Indefinite Pronouns are singular and take a singular verb : each,either, neither, one,everyone,everybody,no one, nobody, anyone,anybody,someone,somebody. These Indefinite Pronouns are plural and take a plural verb: both,few,several, and many. Some indefinite pronouns can be singular or plural : Some, any, none, all and most can be singular or plural.
Pronouns as Subjects and Appositives...
Pronouns used as subjects must be nominative case pronouns. Memorize the following list of nominative case pronouns: I,he,she,we,they, who, and whoever. Pronouns may be also used as appositives. A pronoun appositive must be in the same case as the word to which it refers.
Pronouns as Predicate Nominatives
Pronouns used as predicate nominatives must be nominative case pronouns:I, he,she,we,they,who, whoever.
Pronouns as Objects.
Pronouns used as objects must be objective case pronouns : me,him,her,us,them,whom,whomever.
Nominative Case Pronouns
Nominative Case Pronouns are used as subjects or as predicate nominatives : I,he,she,we,they,who,whoever. In order to know which pronoun to select, you must first determine how the pronoun is used in the sentence or in its dependent clause. Then you select the pronoun from the correct case.
Objective Case Pronouns
Objective Case Pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of prepositions. In order to know which pronoun to select, you must first determine how the pronoun is used in the sentence or in its dependent clause. Then you select the pronoun from the correct case.
An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. It answers the questions what kind, which one, how many, how much, or whose. The words a,an, and the are the most frequently used adjectives. They are called articles. Note : Nonessential adjective clauses and nonessential participle phrases should be set off by commas.
A proper adjective is a word formed from a proper noun and, like a proper noun, begins with a capital letter.
A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject. Predicate adjectives are sometimes called complements. Subject complements always follow linking verbs and refer to the subject. To find a predicate adjective, first locate the linking verb. Then ask the questions what or how after the verb.
Participle (2nd Definition)
A participle is a verb form used as an adjective. A participial phrase consists of the participle together with its modifiers or complements. Participle Phrases may come after the words they modify or they may be placed at the beginning of a sentence.
A dependent clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective clause. Adjective clauses are introduced by words called relatives. Who,whom,which, and that are relative pronouns.
A relative serves a grammatical function within its own dependent clause;joins the dependent clause that it introduces to another clause; and refers to an antecedent in another clause.
Make sure to place adjective modifiers so that they sensibly modify the noun or pronoun that you intend.
There are three degrees of comparison.
Positive, comparative and superlative. The positive degree is used when no comparison is expressed. The comparative degree is used when only two items are being compared. The superlative degree is used when three or more items are being compared.
The comparative and superlative degrees of a few adjectives are formed irregularly.
Positive : Good, Well, Bad, Ill, Many, Much. Comparative : Better, Better,Worse,Worse,More, More. Superlative : Best,Best,Worst,Worse,Most,Most.
Procedure for Finding and Identifying Complements.
A. Find the verb in the sentence. B. Ask who or what before the verb to find the subject. C. Ask yourself if the verb is an action verb or if its a linking verb. D. If the verb is an action verb, look for a noun or pronoun that answers whom or what after the verb. If there is a word that answers those questions, it is the direct object. E. Say the subject, verb, and direct object together. G. Say the subject,verb, indirect object, and direct object together. H. If the verb is a linking verb, look for a noun or pronoun that follows the verb and renames the subject. I. If there is no predicate nominative, look for an adjective that follows the linking verb and describes the subject. If there is one, it is the predicate adjective.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, its noun or pronoun object, and any modifiers of the object.
An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive plus any compliments or modifiers. An infinitive phrase that modifies a ver, an ejective, or an adverb is functioning as an adverb.
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions : after,although,as,as if,as much as, as long as, as soon as, because, before, if, in order that,lest,since,so that, than,that,though,unless,until,wen,whenever,,where,wherever,whether,while. Essential parts of an adverb clause may properly be omitted if no misunderstanding will occur. Such as clause is called an elliptical clause. Note : An adverb phrase or clause that modifies a verb may be placed before or after the verb it modifies, but not between two verbs that it might modify. An adverb phrase or clause that modifies an adjective or an adverb is usually placed after the word it modifies. Place adverb modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify.
A conjunction is a word that joins words, phrases, or clauses. there are two main clauses of conjunctions : coordinating and subordinating.
Elements and Conjunctions
Elements following correlative conjunctions (either, or, neither, nor,both and, not only, but also) should be parallel in form.
A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no dependent clause. A "compound sentence" contains two or more independent clauses but no dependent clauses.
A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
In some complex sentences containing a noun clause, the independent clause is not obvious because the noun clause is port of the independent clause. Dependent clauses always have introductory words. (who, whom,which, that,whose,after,although,as,as if,because,since,when,whenever,where,wherever,whether,while, etc._
A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun. Tells what kind or which one.
A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Tells how, when, where, why, or to what extent.
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
A clause that starts with a subordinate conjunction with a subject and a verb, but cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Two or more independent clauses
Comes before the direct object. Tells to whom, for whom the action of the verb is done. (Claire threw JOSEPH the ball)
Subject and Verb Agreement
the basic rule that states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb
Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement
A pronoun take the place of a noun. The noun that is replaced by a pronoun is called the antecedent.
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