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Biology: Ch.2

Questions and Vocab in Chapter 2 of C-12 Biology Book
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activation energy
energy need to start a chemical reaction
anabolic energy
endothermic reaction in organism
biochemical reactions
chemical reactions that occur inside the cells of living things
catabolic energy
exothermic reactions in organisms
endothermic energy
chemical reactions that absorbs energy
enzymes
protein that speeds up biochemical reaction
exothermic energy
chemical reactions that releases energy
metabolism
sum of all the biochemical reactions in an organism
product
substance that form as the result of a chemical reaction
reactants
starting material in chemical reaction
chemical equation
represents a chemical reaction
chemical reaction
a process that changes some chemical substances into others
catabolic reaction
What type of reaction occurs when you digest your food?
reducing the amount of activation energy
How do enzymes work?
CH4 +2O2 →CO2 +2H2O
What is the chemical equation for burning methane?
ph,temperature,ionic conditions
Activities of enzymes depend on what?
enzymes
Another name for "biological catalyst"
anabolic energy
The joining of amino acids to form a protein is what type of reaction?
activation energy
A push needed to start a chemical reaction?
reactants
During a chemical reaction, the __________ are used up to create the products.
energy
All chemical reactions need ____________ to get started
Exothermic
___________ reactions in organism are called catabolic reactions
Metabolism
Your ______________ includes both exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Bonds
A chemical reaction involves the breaking and forming of ____________
conserved
In a chemical reaction, all matter is ___________
Heat
Energy can be released during a chemical reaction in a form of ________ and light.
Elements
In a chemical reaction, there is the same amount of each ________ in the products as there was in the reactants.
anabolic
A ____________ reactions builds up bigger molecules from smaller ones.
make up cells and carry out life processes
List 2 functions of organic compounds
Carbohydrates and Lipids
Which 2 compounds of organic compounds store energy?
DNA have 2 polynucleotide chains, RNA have 1 polynucleotide chain
What is the main difference between RNA and DNA
100s amino acid
How many amino acids does small protein have?
1000s amino acid
How many amino acids does large protein have?
Carbon creates stable bonds with other elements and itself
Why is carbon considered the essential element of life?
compound
Water (H2O) is an
the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms
What is the main difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
helps cells keep their shape,destroy foreign substances,speeds up biochemical reactions
What are functions of protein?
DNA
_______ is how inherited characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.
Lipid
What organic compound is the major component of cell membrane?
Cellulose
cell wall of plant is made out of
carbon
main element of organic compounds is
Lipid
organic compound that stores energy, forms cell membranes, carries message
DNA
organic compound that contain instructions for protein
Carbohydrates
organic compound that provides energy to cells, stores energy, form body structures
Protein
organic compound that helps cell keep their shape
Element
a pure substance, like carbon
Polysaccharide
may contain just a few simple sugars or thousands
Amino Acid
subunit that makes up proteins
Nucleotide
subunit used to make nucleic acids
Saturated fatty acid
lipid in which carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible
Unsaturated fatty acid
lipid in which carbon atoms are bonded to groups of atoms other then hydrogen
Phospholipid
major component of cell membranes
Matter
anything that take up space and has mass
Compound
A substance that consist of 2 or more elements
Antibodies
protein which binds foreign substance such as bacteria and targets them for destructions
Glucose
monosaccharide used for energy by the cells of most organisms
Hemoglobin
protein that binds with oxygen molecules
double helix
shape of DNA
Starch
used by plants to store energy
Cellulose
used by plants to form rigid walls around the cell
Genetic, RNA
DNA contains________ instructions for proteins and ______ helps assembles the protein.
Mass
Matter is anything that takes up space and ________
Acidic environment
Describe the best environment for the enzyme pepsin.
dissolves substances
Why is water so important
Hydronium ion
product from a breakdown of water, with a positive charge, forms another water molecule accepts the hydrogen ion
Photosynthesis-water is a reactant Respiration- water is a product
main difference between photosynthesis and cellar respiration in term of water
Water planet because 75% of surface is water
Earth is sometimes called the....
Lemon juice
.... is a strong acid
orange juice
example of solution
base
A solution with a lower concentration of hydronium ion is a
sticks together, boiling point, expands when freezes
Hydrogen bonds affect water's properties such as
icecaps and glaciers
Most freshwater is found where
boiling point
212F or 100C
pH scale
0-14
acid
pH less then 7
base
pH more then 7
Photosynthesis
6CO2+6H20+Energy->C6H12O6+6O2
hydroxide ions
-OH
pH
measure of acidity of a solution
solution
same composition throughout
pepsin
needs an acidic environment to work
pancreas
an organ that secretes a strong base into the small intestines
Polarity
difference in electrical charge within the same molecule
Hydrogen bond
holds water molecule together
Structure
Water's_____________ gives a unique properties that helps explain why it vital to all living things.
Lower
Ice floats on water because ice has a _________ density
Blood
____________ is slightly basic with a pH just above 7
positive
in a water molecule, hydrogen atoms have a ______________ charge.
indicators
indicates that a chemical reaction has a occurred
guanine
cytosine always binds with....
thymine
adenine always binds with....
brown paper bag
In a lipid test, the indicator is a...
buret solution
In a protein test, the indicator is a
iodine
In a starch(carbs) test, the indicator is
glucose strips
In a glucose(carbs) test, the indicator is