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A graph in which a summary statistic (usually the mean) is plotted on the y-axis against a categorical variable on the x-axis (this categorical variable could represent, for example, groups of people, different times or different experimental conditions). The value of the mean for each category is shown by a bar. Different-coloured bars may be used to represent levels of a second categorical variable.
The ratio of the probability of the observed data given the alternative hypothesis to the probability of the observed data given the null hypothesis. It is the likelihood of the alternative hypothesis relative to the null. Values between 1 and 3 are considered evidence for the alternative hypothesis that is 'barely worth mentioning', values between 3 and 10 are considered 'substantial evidence', and values greater than 10 are strong evidence.