101 terms

Apex learning Biology semester 2 unit 5.1

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Actin
A protein that is found in two settings in cells: as the main protein in the cytoskeleton structure that supports the cell, and in muscle fibers, along with the protein myosin.
Alveoli
Tiny air sacs in the lungs
Aorta
A large artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Appendicular Bone
Any bone found in the limbs of body, such as bones of the arms or legs
Artery
A muscular blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
Autonomic Nervous System
The division of the nervous system that controls automatic responses.
axial bone
Any bone found on the central axis of the body, such as the bones of the skull, spine, or ribs.
Blood
The fluid that the heart pumps through the arteries and veins. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients and helps it get rid of carbon dioxide and waste.
Blood cells
One of the main components of blood, including red blood cells and white blood cells.
Bone
A strong connective tissue that consists of collagen, calcium, and phosphate and is used for support, protection, movement, and mineral storage.
Bone marrow
The liquid that fills the spongy tissue bonds inside of bones. Bone marrow is where blood cells are made.
Brain
The control center of the central nervous system; it is located in the head in most vertebrates. It controls physical and mental actions and senses.
Brain stem
The portion of the brain that connects the upper brain with the spinal cord. The brain stem id responsible for life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat and respiration, and also for connecting the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body.
Bronchi
A pair of tubes in the respiratory system branching off from the trachea.
Bronchioles
Fine tubes in the respiratory system that branch off the bronchi and connect to the alveoli.
Capillaries
Tiny blood vessels with thin walls that allow molecules to diffuse in and out.
Cardiac Muscle
Muscle that pumps the heart.
Cartilage
A firm, elastic tissue found in ears and developing bones
Cell body
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus.
Central Nervous system
The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebellum
The part of the hindbrain that helps control movement and balance.
Cerebrum
The largest part of the brain, which is divided into two halves and joined by a band of nerve fibers called the corpus sallosum it is the center of the senses, voluntary muscle activity, speech, and memory.
Coagulation
The act of thickening from a fluid and becoming almost or completely solid, as in blood exposed in a wound.
Compact tissue
The hard surface layer of bone.
Connective tissue
A type of tissue in the body that provides support and protection, fills spaces, stores fat, produces blood cells, and helps to repair damage.
Contraction
The act of tightening in the process of movement.
Coronary circulation
The movement of blood in vessels that supply the heart.
Dendrites
Branchlike structures on a neuron that receive signals and convey them to the cell body.
Electrocardiogram
A recording of the heart's electrical activity. It is abbreviated as EKG or ECG.
Epiphysis
The end of a bone, where growth occurs.
Epithelial Tissue
A type of tissue that covers organs or forms the inner lining of hollows in the body. Epithelial Tissue always has one surface that is exposed to an open space, while the other surface is attached to connective tissue.
Fibula
The outer and smaller of two bones extending from the knee to the ankle.
Foramina
Holes in the skull that allow nerves, veins, and arteries to pass through to the brain and face.
Fossae
Spaces for blood vessels or nerves to pass along the surface of a bone, or to hold an organ or a muscle.
Gas exchange
The process by which oxygen is extracted from inhaled air into the bloodstream. At the same time, carbon dioxide waste is carried from the blood to be disposed through the lungs upon the process of breathing out.
Heart
A muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Hemoglobin
A protein in the red blood cell that carries oxygen.
Hepatic Portal
A vein that carries blood from the digestive organs and spleen to the liver.
Hepatic Vein
A vein that carries clean blood from the liver to the interior vena cava.
Humerus
The bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
Hypertension
A condition involving abnormally high blood pressure.
Hypothalamus
A region of the vertebrate brain that regulates that state of the body, including the endocrine and nervous systems.
Inferior Vena Cava
A large vein that receives blood from the abnormal and lower body and returns it to the heart.
Interneuron
A neuron that transmits signals to other neurons.
Liver
An organ below the lungs with several functions, including the filtration of poisons and the production of a chemical called Bile that aids digestion.
Lungs
A pair of organs responsible for respiration
Medulla Oblongata
The lower part of the brain stem; it regulates respiration, circulation and other important body functions.
Meninges
Three membranes that protect cand cushion the brain and spinal cord. From the innermost layer outward, they are the pia mater arachnoid mater and dura mater. Spinal fluid flows in the space between two of the membranes.
Midbrain
one of three basic regions of the brain, connecting the forebrain and the hindbrain. This area is responsible for sensory information, including the optic lobes.
Motor neuron
A nerve that sends signals from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Muscle
A contacting organ responsible for moving particular bones or substances of the body.
Muscle fiber
A specialized cell made of myofibrilis that can be up to several inches long.
Muscle tissue
Tissue in the body that shortens or tenses to move particular bones or substances of the body.
Myelin
A fatty substance that covers the axon of a neuron.
Myofibril
A stretchy, threadlike piece of muscle fiber.
Myosin
A long protein used for contraction inside a muscle fiber.
Nervous system
The system in the body that communicates with muscles and glands using electrochemical signals called nerve impulses
Nervous tissue
Tissue in the body made by neurons.
Neromuscular junction
A synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle, also called a myoneural junction.
Neuron
A basic nerve cell that carries signals throughout the nervous system.
Neurotransmitter
A chemical signal that crosses a synapse and binds a receptor on the next cell to stimulate it.
Organ
A specialized structure that carries out a specific function in living organisms.
Ossification
The formation of bones from the cartilage.
osteoblast
A cell that makes a new bone tissue.
osteoclast
A cell that breaks down old bone tissue.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body down. EX: after a fight-or-flight response from the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system slows heart rate and constricts pupils.
Peripheral Nervous system
The part of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord; it includes nerves and nerve tissues.
Phalanges
Finger and toe bones.
Plasma
The liquid part of blood in which the red and white blood cells and platelets are present. It also contains ionic substances, dissolved gases, carbohydrates, and proteins.
Platelets
A component of blood made of cells and proteins that stick to a wound to close it.
Pons
A portion of the brain stem that is involved in coordinating muscular action and facial expressions.
Pulmonary arteries
Arteries that connect the lungs and heart.
Pulmonary circuit
The system that carries blood into the lungs and then back to the heart; it is composed of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, and heart.
pulmonary veins
Veins that connect the lungs and heart.
Radius
One of two bones extending from the elbow to wrist(thumb side)
Red blood cells
Round, red-colored cells that contain hemoglobin, which transports oxygen.
Reflex
A very fast, automatic reaction to a stimulus in the environment.
Reflex ard
The neural signal pathway during a muscle reflex.
Respiration
The breathing in and out of air, during which oxygen is transferred to blood and cells.
Respiratory system
The system designed for breathing, including parts of the lungs as well as parts of the mouth, nose, and neck.
Sarcomere
The basic unit of contradiction in a muscle fiber.
Sensory neuron
A nerve that takes information from a sensory organ, such as the eye, and sends it to the central nervous system.
Skeletal muscle
Muscle that moves your body. EX: the muscles of your arms, legs, shoulders, and back.
Skeletomuscular system
The system of support and motion in the body, including all muscles and bones.
Smooth muscle
Muscle in your intestinal walls that moves food through your stomach and intestines.
Somatic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system, that controls voluntary movements. EX: chewing and running are controlled by somatic nervous system.
Spinal cord
The nerve tissue along the spine that, as part of the central nervous system, bridges signals between the brain and branching nerves in other parts of the body
Spongy tissue
The soft inner tissue of a bone. Spongy tissue is made of small pieces of bone, called trabeculae, and is filled with bone marrow.
Stiated
Striped or grooved.
Superior Vena Cava
A large vein that recieves blood from the upper body, and returns it to the heart.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that triggers a fight-or-flight response.
Synapse
A space between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle cell across which nerve signals can be transmitted.
System
A group of connected and related things.
Thalamus
The portion of the midbrain whose primary function is to relay information from sensory systems to the cerebral cortex.
Tibia
The inner and larger of two bones extending from the knee to the ankle.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that work together to perform a distinct function in an organism.
Trachea
The windpipe; a tube in the respiratory system that branches into two bronchi.
Tubercle
A rounded knob on the end of some bones that allows other bones or muscles to connect to it.
Ulna
One or two bones extending from the elbow to the wrist (Pinky finger side)
Vein
A muscular blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.
White blood cell
Blood cells that attack viruses and bacteria.
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