The world post WWII

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Europe at the End of the War
Devastation
Deaths 50-80 million
Factories, land, homes etc destroyed
Malnutrition: extreme rationing during the war
Displaced Persons
Millions of refugees
Largest were ethnic germans
Forced out of sudentenland, poland, and soviet union
Large minority problems
Collaborations
What to do with thsoe who collaborated with the Nazis
Allied peace in arms
Soviet Union
Primany aim security of soviet union
Buffer zone between them and germany
Sought a sphere of influence in eastern europe
US
Best positioned nation in 1945
50% of the worlds production capacity in 1945
Primary aim economic sphere of influece, spread throughout the world
Communism and Capitalism
1945: Protsdam conference
Big Three (Stalin, Truman, and clemet autlee)
Discussion of the nuremberg Trials
Set up 4 spheres of influence (france, britain, soviet union and USA)
Temporary borders in eastern europe
Major Point: Not anthing of significant change comes from potsdam or other peace negotiantions
Eastern Europe post 1945
1945: Soviert Union demanded that all "New" Nations should be occupied by soviet union
US wanted influence in Japan and E. Europe
SOviet Union Refused
1945: Soviet levels of influence
Soviets created a friendly coalition E. Europe
Direct Influence vs indirect influence
1947-1948 Soviet Crackdown
Direct Result of the Marshall Plan
PLan: USA to pump money into europe to help europe recover
Many E. European countries were in support of the plan
Stalin Upset
All of E. Europe became appendages of soviet union
Satelite States
Denazification
Most adults were associated with the party in some way
Nuremburg Trials fored germany to acknowledge the atronicities

Reparations and Economy
USA: Morgenthau plan- wanted a pre industrial revolution in germany
Soviet Union: Wanted 50% of the reparations
Solution: Four power settlement
Germany can return to 50% of their 1938 levels of industry
1949: eMERGENCE OF 2 GERMANYS
Federal republic of germany W germany USA
German democratic republic E. Germany USSr
Unequal destinies: education and industries
Berlin Wall in 1961
Post 1945: Deconlinization
How did WWII lead to decolonization
MAjor colonial powers are weakened
France belgium britain etc
Superpowers (US AND USSR) oppose european colonization
Usa wanted to influence w. Europe and soviets in the east
Destroys the myth of the white military superiority
Japan proove importance of non white forces
Key Point WW2 unraveled 500 years of european imperialism
Decolonization: India
Indian national congress
Led by Jawahralal Nehru and Mahatma Ghandi
If we fight we get autonomy
1942: Cripps Offer
India will be independent after WWII
INC vs Muslim league
INC: wanted a unified india after british are out
MI: wanted partition
Chose Partition
India became mostly Hindu, Pakistan got most of the Muslims
British get out in 1947 to avoid tensions
Decolonization Indo-China
Japan occupied China Indo-China during WW2
France wanted to restablis coloninization in indochina
Most people in Indo-China dont want french either
Mao Zedong elected as leader of China
USA entered the conversation
1954: Geneva Conference
France lost Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
Vietnam divided N and S
USA set up anti communist government in south vietnam
Vietnam war (1955-1975)
Decolonization: Africa
Egypt: Suez Canal Crisis
Britain held the suez canal since 1882
Nasser( leader in egypt) reclained the Suez canal
British and French try to take it back
Internation leaders prevent B and F from taking it back
Egypt: set te standard throughout Africa for decolonization
Britain lost Ghana (1957) and kenyta (1963)
France in Algeria
Wanted to spread frech culture
Evian Accords 1962: French Vote for an independentAlgeria
But Charles de Gaulle did increase French influence in Algeria and Senegal
Major Point: Colonization: Imperialsim helped cause WWI and as a result of WW2 it is over and Europe is no longer as dominant of a continent