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American Studies Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (141)
Chapter 9 What did the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions declare?
We're political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799,which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
What were the alien and sedition acts?
A series of laws known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by the Federalist Cong. in 1798 and signed into law by President Adams. laws included new powers to deport foreigners as well as making it harder for new immigrants to vote.
Explain the concept of states rights
It refers to political powers reserved for the U.S. state gov. rather than the federal gov. according to the U.S. Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Cong. and the 10th Amendment.
What is a person who lives in US but isn't a citizen called?
What were the first two political parties in the US?
Democratic-Republicans and Federalists
Why were political parties created?
From 1796 to 1828 the first political parties were formed. During the time when our country was in its formative years, two opposing factions arose. Each was concerned with how the new gov. was to be organized.
What is meant by foreign policy?
A gov. strategy in dealing with other nations.
What act of congress set up the federal court system?
The Judiciary Act of 1789. Article III of the Constitution established a Supreme Court, but left to Congress the authority to create lower federal courts as needed.
Why did Alexander Hamilton believe it was important to pay nations debts?
Believed that by accepting these debts their full value, the wealthy creditors, banker, and merchants who owned the bonds would have a stake in gov.'s success and enough cinfidence in its finical stability to loan it money in the future.
Why did Hamiltons plan make the national gov. more powerful?
By bringing more money to the government and gaining respect from citizens and other nations
What is the difference between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson?
Hamilton believed people needed to be managed and controlled by a national government. Jefferson believed in self government of and by the people. Their biggest fight and disagreement, was Hamilton believed in a federal bank, like today's Federal Reserve. Jefferson totally opposed it
Why did Washington advise nation to remain neutral in world affairs?
the nation was too weak to fight a major European power -alliances might pull the country into a foreign war - the nation could not afford to fight another war
Who held belief that nations future success lay in manufacturing and trade instead of agriculture?
To solve the challenges the new nation faced, president Washington depended on what?
Washington relied on his cabinet to help him resolve the challenges that America faced in its first years as an independent country.
What was the XYZ affair?
3 american delegates sent to France to negotiate, caused by British and French threatening American shipping, French bribe delegates but US leaves
Why did Washington send 13,000 troops against the farmers in Whiskey Rebellion?
He wanted to prove that the US would not stand for rebellions like this. He enforced the tax and crush the rebellion. They condemned the rebels for resisting the law.
Who were the candidates in election of 1800 and what party did each represent?
Thomas Jefferson -Democratic-Republican
John Adams- Federalist
Charles C. Pinckney-Federalist
In election of 1800, who were the two candidates that tied?
The Presidential race was contested between the Federalist President, John Adams, and the Democratic-Republican candidate, Thomas Jefferson.
Who ultimately determined the winner in election of 1800?
House of Representatives
Give examples of federalist programs Jefferson eliminated; which significant one did he keep?
- Ended Alien and Sedition Acts.
- Ended many taxes, like Whiskey Tax.
- Reduced # of federal employees.
- Reduced size of military.
Jefferson kept the revenues from tariffs and land sales to reduce money owed by the government.
Explain the principle of judicial review
Created during Marbury v. Madison. S.C has final say in interpreting the Constitution [to say what the law is]. If law violates Constitution, it cannot be put into effect. Helped to balance power of the three branches.
What did the Supreme Court decide in the case of Marburg v. Madison?
Marbury sued Madison for refusing to not give him his job. The Supreme Court ruled that the law which Marbury sued under was unconstitutional.
What problem troubled Jefferson about his purchase of Louisiana?
Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. The Constitution never said anything about the president's right to buy new land.
What were some reasons behind the US purchase of Louisiana from France?
NAPOLEON'S REASONS: - Alarmed by America's determination to keep the New Orleans port.
- Enthusiasm for an American colony lessened by colonies in West Indies.
- Needed money for war with Britain.
- He wanted a republic of small farmers, which needed more land.
- Cheaper offer for so much land.
- Would increase the size of the US.
How did native Americans aid the Lewis and Clark expedition?
The Shoshone tribe gave horses to Lewis and Clark, and helped them cross the Rocky Mountains.
Why was Sacajawea so important to US history?
She guided Lewis and Clark through the unknown region and translated the language of the Indian tribes. Lewis and Clark would not have survived if it weren't for her.
What knowledge was gained from expeditions to Louisiana territory?
- Scientific and geographic information of the land, like different plants and animals etc.
- An all-water route across the continent didn't exist.
- Descriptions of the Great Plains, how it was treeless and wouldn't be very good for farming. This was inaccurate.
Why did Jefferson send the corps of discovery into Louisiana territory?
- To find a water route across America
- Get good relations with the Native Americans
- Describe the landscape, plants and animals they saw
Explain Embargo Act
France and Britain were seizing US ships, and instead of declaring war, Jefferson passed this act. American ships could not sail to any foreign ports, and closed American ports to Britain.
How did the Napoleonic wars affect US?
Britain and France both wanted the US's help. Britain didn't want the US to supply France with food and supplies, so they created a partial blockade. 1.) France and Britain enacted laws to control foreign shipping. If US obeyed French rules, Britain would seize their ships. Vice Versa. 2.) The Embargo Act of 1807 stopped all trade with foreign countries and was an economic disaster. 3.) Native Americans and Britain became allies to go against US. 4.) Andrew Jackson urged congress to declare war, they did. The War of 1812.
Why were calls for war w/ Britain stronger in Trans-Appalachian Westvthan they were in other regions of nation?
Britain was stirring up a Native American Resistance to frontier settlers or so was though by Northwestern settlers. Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief, united different Native American tribes to prevent the US from taking their land. After the NAs loss at the battle of Tippecanoe, they became allies with Britain.
Describe US military at start of war of 1812
It was very weak because Thomas Jefferson cut down the size for the national debt. >7,000 men. Navy only had about 16 ships. Inexperienced and ignorant officers had poorly trained and equipped men.
Why was Oliver hazard perry's victory over a British fleet in 1813 so important?
In a battle at Lake Erie, he refused to give up the ship. His ship was then demolished, and him and four men rowed to another ship. 2nd ship, the destroyed 2 Brit. ships and forced them to surrender. This protected many of the Northern states, increased American patriotism and proved that it could defeat the strongest military in that era.
Who was commander that was victorious at battle at tippecanoe and battle of the Thames?
General William Henry Harrison.
Who saved landowne portrait when British burned Washington DC?
What inspired Francis Scott Key to write the star spangled banner?
He was held in British ship and watched the battle at Fort McHenry. At dawn, he saw the American flag still flying and he expressed his pride in what is now the national anthem.
What was significant about the battle of New Orleans?
Led by Andrew Jackson, his American soldiers of 71 defeated 2,000 British troops. This battle made him a hero, but 2 weeks earlier due to slow mails, the Treaty of Ghent ended the war.
What treaty ended war of 1812?
Treaty of Ghent
What did the judiciary act of 1801 allow pres. Adams do?
It increased the # of federal judges, which allowed Adams to appoint as many Federalist judges as he could between the election of 1800 and Jefferson's inauguration.
Which native American leader died while fighting for Bristish in war of 1812 in battle of the Thames?
How did the invention of the cotton gin affect native Americans?
more Native Americans were driven off their land in the South, so the land could become land for a cotton plantation
Who invented the cotton gin?
What purpose did spirituals serve on southern plantations?
To raise spirits or secretly form escape plans.
Where were most of the nations early factories built, why?
New England because swift-moving streams and rivers provided a source of power
How did slaveholders try to control African Americans in south?
By punishment and separation from families
How did enslaved African Americans deal with the challenges of slavery?
They sang songs, expressed their religion, and some tried to escape
What made the Northeast and Midwest develop a close bond?
New roads and canals that ran East to West, such as the National Road and Erie Canal.
How did war of 1812 encourage the growth of US manufacturing?
British ships blockaded eastern seaports, preventing foreign ships
from delivering goods. Therefore, Americans had to make their own
How did transportation improvements in 1800s affect nation?
It allowed for more transport of supplies, passengers, livestock, tobacco and other goods.
Who was the military commander who claimed Florida for US?
What was the Missouri Compromise?
A series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states
What is nationalism?
A feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward one's country
Explain the American system
a plan introduced in 1815 to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient
What is nat turner best known for?
Leading an armed slave rebellion in 1831, in Virginia
Who demonstrated how a telegraph would allow people to communicate more quickly?
Samuel F.B Morse
What did the Supreme Courts ruling in 1819 case of Mcculloch v. Maryland say?
Ruled that Congress had implied powers under the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution to create the Second Bank of the US and that the state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the Bank.
What did the Monroe doctrine warn European powers about?
Told Europe no American country would be colonized anymore. They stated that if any European nation wanted to colonized any American country than their would be a conflict.
Who was the candidate who was elected president as a result of what some Americans believed to be a corrupt political deal?
Why was election of 1824 not in the spirit of Jacksonian demcracy?
Jefferson and Burr tied. The house of representatives then chose the president.
What was the central principle of Jacksonian democracy?
The idea of spreading political power to all people, thereby ensuring majority rule
What was Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding his political backers called?
The spoils system
What President's election ended control of the government by an educated elite?
What political leader from SC was a strong nationalist before becoming a champion of state's rights?
John C. Calhoun
Who was the Massachusetts political leader who was one of the strongest nationalists in the U.S. senate?
Explain why the tariff passed in 1828 was called tariff of abominations?
This tariff raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods; it upset the Southerners who felt the economic interests of the Northeast were determining national economic policy
What was the major issue in the Webster-Hayne debate?
Doctrine of nullification
Why was Andrew Jackson opposed to the doctrine of nullification?
He believed it would drive the South off the Union
What was forced journey of Cherokee people from Georgia homeland to Indian territory known as?
Trail of Tears
Why were the Cheeokees forces to move West?
After the discovery of gold, whites began to move onto Cherokee land. Georgia and other Southern states passed laws that gave them the right to take over Native American lands
Why was Sequoya such an important figure in 1800s?
He invented a writing system for the Cherokee, and made them literate.
What 2 things did Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison have in common?
They both believed that the gov. didn't need to be run by the wealthiest people; poverty vs. riches
What did Daniel Webster, Henry clay, and John c. Calhoun all have in common?
They both argued against the doctrine of nullification
Who supported jackson's goal of preserving Union, but as a founder of the Whig party was also his enemy?
William Henry Harrison
The Whig party was most directly related to what political party?
A British Party that opposed royal power
What development led to the panic of 1837?
A financial crisis
Who was responsible for nation's money supply during most of jackson's presidency?
Why did Andrew Jackson dislike the national bank and then decide to attack it?
He thought the bank's policies favored the wealthy over the average people.
Describe the population of CA before the arrival of the 49's
California was a very weak territory (almost state) which was mainly occupied by Spanish and Mexicans. There were very few Americans, but more due to events like the Oregon Trail.
Who were the 2 men that are most closely linked to the discovery of gold in CA?
James Marshall and John Sutter
What were the people who went to CA during Gold rush called?
What route did miners take to reach CA?
Sailed around South America, sailed through the isthmus of Panama, or traveled North American trails.
Who owned the mill that the discovery of gold in CA was near?
How long after the gold rush did it take for CA to have enough people to become a state?
About 1 year.
What was William Travis best known for?
Heading the Texas army at the Alamo against Santa Anna's army.
What group of Americans sought religious freedom in West?
What phrase did Americans use to explain their expansion westward?
What route did most missionaries and farmers moving into far west travel along?
The Oregon Trail.
Who was most responsible for adding CA,Oregon, and southwest to US?
Where did the Donner party begin their ill-fated journey?
Describe relationship between tejanos and Americans living in TX?
Tejanos were people living in Texas of Spanish heritage who consider Texas their home
What did Americans in TX have against their gov. in Mexico?
Little Americans spoke Spanish so they were unhappy that all the official documents were written in Spanish
Who commanded the TX army and also was president of TX republic?
How did the U.S. gov. gain control of CA?
By the Bear Flag Revolt led by John C. Fremont
What was the main objective of the nativists?
To eliminate foreign influence
What was the know-nothing party;who were its members?
Group who opposed immigrants and followers of the catholic church. majority of the Know nothings came from working class backgrounds
What is a severe food shortage that results in widespread hunger and death called?
Give examples of a push factor in immigration.
2. agricultural change
4. industrial revolution
5. religious and political turmoil
What was the cheapest way to travel by ship to US in mid-1800s?
Steerage; very bottom of the ship
People who COME to a country to settle
Who was the slave that escaped that made dangerous trips back to South to help other enslaved African Americans escape to freedom?
Who led the movement for public education in mid-1800s
What group had the most opportunity to get a public education?
White boys; usually upper class
What group had the least opportunity to get a public education?
Girls; especially African Americans
How did the Second Great Awakening influence Americans?
It renewed religious faith in the 1790s and early 1800s
What made shakers different from other Americans at the time?
Shakers vowed to never marry and to never have any children
What way of thinking stressed that spiritual world was more important the physical world? ( Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote about it)
What advice did Walden author Henry David Thoreau have for Americans?
He said that people should live by their own individual standards
What did women's rights and the abolitionist movements have in common?
A lot of people who crossed over in the movement, both fighting for rights
Why did Elizabeth cast Stanton and Lucretia Mott organize the Seneca falls convention?
To come together and encourage women to join the movement of women's rights.
What made the Seneca falls convention such an important event?
Nothing like this "meeting" had ever been called for in American history and it attracted over 100 to 300 men and women
Who led the movement to improve treatment of mentally ill in US?
What effort was made to help workers during 1830s and 1840s?
Labor unions and strikes
What connected any women and the temperance movement?
alcoholism called spouse abuse or spend all the family's money and leave them in poverty
How did the outbreak of the war of Mexico revive disagreements over Alavert between north and south?
Northerners believed Southerners wanted to expand slavery to new lands.
What was the Kansas-Nebraska act?
It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders.
What was a provision of the compromise of 1850?
(1) CA was admitted to the Union as a free state; (2) the remainder of the Mexican cession was divided into the two territories of New Mexico and Utah and organized without mention of slavery etc.
What was the Crittenden Plan?
The south forming a new government in Montgomery and Alabama and compromise introduced in 1861 that might have prevented secession
What was the purpose of the Fugitive Slave Act?
That if any runaway in the north are found they must be returned to the south and can not be hidden
Who was a leading abolitionist, former slave, and a writer of a newspaper?
Who held the most extreme views on slavery and abolition?
What was uncle toms cabin about?
Portrays the life of slavery
How did uncle toms cabin impact Americans?
Popular in the north, white southerners thought it falsely criticized the south and slavery
Who is the author of uncle toms cabin?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
What were the Lincoln-Douglas debates about?
expansion of slavery
How did the Supreme Court add to the tensions over slavery in 1850s?
Dred Scot Decision
What is the belief that the people living in a region should decide key issues called?
What was the democratic party's platform in election of 1860?
the southerners wanted the party to defend slavery in the platform
This new political party was formed by Free-Soilers, Northern Whigs, and Democrats who opposed the spread of slavery. what is it called
Who hoped to seize weapons for a slave rebellion at harpers ferry, Virginia?
In 1860 and 1861, seven southern states seceded form Union in protest of what?
Lincoln becoming president
Who was the president of the confederacy?
What were the confederate states of US?
Who was John c Calhoun?
was an American statesman and political theorist from SC, who is best remembered for his strong defense of slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics.
Who was Henry clay?
US lawyer and planter, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the U.S. Senate and HOR.
Who was Sam Houston?
US politician and soldier, best known for his role in bringing Texas into the US as a constituent state. His victory at the Battle of San Jacinto secured the independence of Texas from Mexico.
Who was Frederick Douglas?
African-American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman.
Who was Roger Taney?
fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864.
Who was Jefferson Davis?
US politician who was a U.S. Representative and Senator from Mississippi, the 23rd U.S. Secretary of War, and the Pres. of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.
Who was John Marshall?
4th chief justice of US
Who was William Henry Harrison?
ninth Pres.of the US,an American military officer and politician, and the last president born as a British subject. He was also the first president to die in office.
Who was martin van buren?
US politician who served as the eighth President of the United States.
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