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AP Biology Must-Know Anatomy (Human Neurology)
Terms in this set (12)
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out. It coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system. Neurons are the basic units that make up the CNS.
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord. Connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs.
Somatic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent and efferent nerves. Controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs such as the skin. This system is said to be voluntary because the responses can be controlled consciously.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes. This system is also called the involuntary nervous system. The autonomic nervous system can further be divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
Sympathetic Nervous System
One of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. Provides quick responses to immediate needs (e.g., responses to present threats.) For example, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate, respiration, and perspiration to ready our body for "fight or flight." Regulates heart rate, breathing, sweating.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
One of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Slows the body's functions to allow processes such as digestion to occur. Sometimes called the "rest and digest" system
The stem-like part of the base of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord. The brain stem controls the flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body, and it also controls basic body functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, and whether one is awake or sleepy. The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
The portion of the brain that is in the back of the head, between the cerebrum and the brain stem. It is involved in the control of voluntary and involuntary movement as well as balance. Regulates muscular activity. Made of two hempispheres. Cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements
A watery fluid that is continuously produced and absorbed and that flows in the ventricles within the brain and around the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Abbreviated CSF. Liquid that bathes the central nervous system: the brain and the spinal chord. Produced in the choroid plexus of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull, and it serves a vital function in cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. primary function is to cushion the brain within the skull and serve as a shock absorber for the central nervous system, also circulates nutrients and chemicals filtered from the blood and removes waste products from the brain
The principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres, left and right, separated by a fissure/crack. Largest portion of the brain. Associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
The three membranes (the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater) that line the skull and vertebral canal and enclose/cover the brain and spinal cord. A series of membranous layers of connective tissue that protect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Damage or infection to the meninges, such as in meningitis, can cause serious neurological damage and even death.
The the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system; Is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extend from the brain (the medulla oblongata specifically). Lies within the vertebral canal. Often known as just the "chord."
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