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Structural Design
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sharjah/FLEA2012
Terms in this set (111)
Bond Stress
The force adhesion per unit area of contact between two bonded surface.
450mm
In walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction, primary flexural reinforcement shall not be spaced farther apart than 3 times wall or slab thickness not farther than _____.
d/2
Spacing of shear reinforcement placed perpendicular to axis of non-prestressed member shall not exceed _____.
Flexible Components
Is a component including its attachments having fundamental period greater than 0.60 sec.
25mm
The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer must not be db not less than_____.
200
The slenderness ratio, kl/r of compression members shall not exceed______.
25%
In the determination of seismic dead load with a minimum of ___% of floor, live load shall be applicable for storage and warehouse occupancies.
Vertical Geometric Irregularity
Story dimension greater than 130% of the dimension of adjacent story.
60 times
Spacing for a lateral support for a beam shall not exceed _____ times the least width b of compression flange or face.
0.40
Deep continuous flexural members have overall depth to clear span ratio greater than _____.
1.4 Dead Load + 1.7 Live Load
Factored load for strength design method.
Rigid Component
A component including its attachments having fundamental period less than or equal to 0.06 sec.
Bearing Wall System
It is a structural system without complete vertical local carrying space frame.
Allowable Stress
The maximum safe stress that a material can withstand.
0.75
Deep simple span flexural members has overall depth to clear span ratio greater than______.
Moment Resisting Frame
A frame with rigid joints, in which the members and joints are capable of resisting vertical and horizontal forces primarily by flexure. it is also called a RIGID FRAME.
Bearing Stress
Contact pressure developed between two bodies.
Portal Method
Method of analyzing indeterminate modular building frames by assuming hinges at the center of beam spans and column heights.
1.50db
In spirally reinforced or tied reinforcement compression members, clear distance between longitudinal bars shall not be less than _____.
Braced Frame
An essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type that is provided to resist lateral forces.
10mm
The minimum nominal diameter of steel bolts when wood plates or sill shall be bolted to foundation wall in zone 4 seismic area in the Philippines.
0.70
USD strength reduction factor Ø for bearing on concrete.
0.90
USD strength reduction factor Ø for axial tension and axial tension without flexure.
0.85
USD strength reduction factor Ø for post tensioned anchorage zones.
0.70
USD strength reduction factor Ø for axial compression and axial compression with flexure: spiral reinforced.
0.75
USD strength reduction factor Ø for axial compression and axial compression with flexure: tie and other reinforcement members.
0.85
USD strength reduction factor Ø for shear and torsion.
0.90
USD strength reduction factor Ø for flexure without axial load.
Minimum Diameter of Main Bars: 12 mm
Minimum Diameter of Temp Bars: 10 mm
Minimum Covers: 20mm for Indoors
50mm if exposed to weather
74mm if in contact with soil
One-way Slab Bars (Cover and Sizes)
-Main Bars
-Temp Bars
-Minimum Covers
Essential Facilities
Structures that are necessary for emergency operations subsequent to a natural disaster.
3mm
Minimum size of fillet weld.
4700 √f'c
Modulus of elasticity of concrete.
Thermal Stress
The stress induced as a result of restrained deformations due to changes in temperature.
Inflection Point
It is a point in a beam or column where there is no moment developed.
Essential Facilities
Aviation control towers fall to what type of occupancy?
0.01 - 0.08
Steel ratio ρ for spiral columns ranges from _____.
L/240
The allowable deflection for any structural member loaded with dead load and live load only.
100mm
When grillage footings of structural steel shapes are used on soils, they shall be completely embedded in concrete. Concrete cover shall be at least _____ on the bottom.
0.60m
The minimum distance that the toe of fill slope made to the site boundary line.
10 days
Before commencing the excavation work, the person making the excavation shall notify, in writing, the owner of the adjoining building not less than _____ days before such excavation is to be made.
ⱳL/2
A simply supported beam, L meters long, carrying a uniformly distributed load of ⱳ in N/m, produces a maximum shear force of _____.
Flanged Bolt Coupling
Used to connect shafts.
Torque
It is a twisting force that rotates or tends to rotate a shaft.
Bond
Adherence between materials such as bricks, mortar or plies of felt or between felts and other elements of roof systems which use bitumen or other materials as the cementing agent.
0.003
The actual strain by which a concrete fails is 0.004. For safety purposes, the ACI code allowas designers to use _____.
Bundled Bars:
-Minimum dia: 16mm
-Maximum dia: 36mm
-Minimum hoop/stirrup dia: 12mm
-Minimum cover: 50mm (indoor)
Two to four parallel reinforcing bars put in contact as a unit.
-Minimum diameter
-Maximum diameter
-Minimum hoop/stirrup
-Minimum Cover
a²=b²+c²-2bcCosA
Cosine Law (formula)
Girder
Large beam supporting a smaller beam.
7850kg/m³ or 490lb/ft³
Weight of steel.
WSD - Working Stress Design
USD - Ultimate Strength Design
Methods of concrete design
1/4 to 1/3 of the height of the building
Excavation of floating foundation.
Weight/Mass Irregularity
Story mass greater than 150% of the mass of adjacent story.
Weak Story
Story strength less than 80% of the story strength above.
Diaphragm
A Horizontal or nearly horizontal system including horizontal bracing system that act to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements.
Stress
Force per unit area.
Punching Shear
The failure of a base when heavily loaded columns strike a hole through it.
Working Stress
Actual stress due to load applied.
Retaining Wall
Supports soil pressure.
Dikes
Supports hydrostatic pressure along rivers.
Development length (less than 300mm for deformed bars in tension)
An extension of the length in the reinforcement used to develop strength required by the code.
Curing
Sprinkling of water to improve the hydration process.
Settlement
Gradual downward movement of an engineering structure due to compression of the soil below the foundation.
Compaction
Densification of soil every 200mm.
200mm
Minimum thickness of road.
375mm
Minimum thickness of runway
aggregates
Inert materials used in concrete which occupy more than 75% of the volume of the hardened concrete.
Hooke's Law
A law stating that, in a linear system, the restoring force is proportional to the displacement of the body acting in a direction as to restore equilibrium.
Uplift Pressure
Pressure coming from soil and water., The pressure in an upward direction against the bottom of a structure or a basement floor or a road slab with the presence of water.
Critical Path
Series of interconnected activities through the network for which an activity has a zero float time and it tells the least time needed to complete the project.
Pedestal
An upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimensions of less than three.
10mm-25mm : 6db
28mm - 36mm : 8db
Minimum bend diameters.
25% of scaffolding can be removed at the slab area after 2 days of pouring and 100% of scaffolding after 28 days
What criterion conforms to good construction practice for the earliest time to remove scaffolding for concrete if no anticipated load is expected over poured floor.
Tensile Stress
The stress per square unit area of the original cross section of a material which resists its elongation.
Storage Warehouse
In national building code, live load reduction is never allowed for _____.
ρ = As/bd
The steel ratio, ρ, is determined from the formula _____.
S = M/f (divided by the allowable bending stress)
To determine the required section modulus S, the maximum moment should be _____.
Yield
What usually happens to reinforcing steel in a reinforced concrete slab or beam if such member is about to collapse.
75mm
Maximum spacing of spirals.
Pier
It is an isolated column of masonry or a bearing wall not bonded at the sides into associated masonry when its horizontal dimension, measured at the right angle to the thickness, does not exceed four times its thickness.
Crippling
The sharp bending or buckling when a column is loaded heavily is called _____.
Shear Wall
The wall that resists horizontal forces applied in a plane of the wall.
Two-way
When the ratio of the short to the long direction of a slab is ≥ 0.5 then the slab is _____.
L/20 = simply supported
L/24 = one end continuous
L/28 = both ends continuous
L/10 = cantilevered
Minimum thickness of One-way slab.
200 GPa or 200x10³ MPa
Modulus of Elasticity of Steel.
Planted Column
A column that is not aligned to a lower floor column.
2 years
A complete record of test of materials and of concrete shall be available for inspection during the progress of work and _____ years after completion of the project and shall be preserved by the inspecting engineer or architect for that purpose.
Batter Piles
Piles placed at an inclination to resist forces that are not critical.
Minimum bar: 6-16mm Ø
Minimum spiral: 10mmØ spiral for 16mm to 32mmØ
12mm Ø spiral for longitudinal larger than 32mm Ø
Minimum spacing: › 25mm
Maximum spacing: 75mm
Spiral Column:
-Minimum bar
-Minimum spiral
-Minimum/Maximum spacing
L/360
The allowable deflection for any structural member loaded with live load only is _____.
6-16mm Ø bars
Minimum reinforcing steel for spiral columns allowed by the ACI code is ____.
Size of ties: 10mm Ø for 16mm to 32mm Ø bars
:12mm Ø for main bars larger than 32mm Ø
Min. Ø of main bars: 16mm
Min. no. of bars: 4
*If S is larger than 150mm(6") provide additional ties.
Min. cover: 40 (not exposed to weather)
:75 (in contact with soil/exposed to weather)
Tied Column:
-Size of ties
-Minimum Ø of main bar
-Minimum no. of bars
-If more than 4 bars
-Minimum cover
Length
In a column whose slenderness ratio is greater than 160, which has the greatest influence on its tendency to buckle under a compressive load.
0.70
As per ACI code, the capacity reduction factor of concrete members according to type of stress bearing is _____.
Min. Ø of bot bars: 12mm Ø
Min. Ø of top bars: 12mm Ø
Min. cover: 20mm (indoor)
50mm (exposed to weather)
75mm (in contact with soil)
Two-way slab:
-Minimum Ø of bottom bars
-Minimum Ø of top bars
-Minimum cover
Shear
A force or load acting across a beam near its support.
ⱳL²/8
Maximum moment of a simply supported beam whose span length is L, in meters, carrying a uniformly distributed load of ⱳ in N/m is _____.
Span
Distance between two supports.
200mm
Concrete filled driven piles of uniform section shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less than _____.
50%
The slope of cut surfaces shall be no steeper than _____% slope.
40db
Individual bars within a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall terminate at different points with at least _____ stagger.
4 pieces
Groups of parallel reinforcing bars bundled in contact to act as one unit shall be united to ____ pieces in one bundle.
1:3 to 1:7 or 0.30 to 0.70
Water-cement ratio.
4th power
The moment of inertia of any plane figure can be expressed in unit of length to the _____.
Impact Load
What do you call the loads brought about by elevators and machinery or equipment's sudden movements.
1. Wind Load
2. Seismic Load
3. Ice Load
4. Snow Load
5. Soil Pressure
6. Hydrostatic Pressure
6 environmental loads.
Flexural Rigidity
What resists bending?
Early Setting Cement
Rapid hardening cement is actually called _____.
Jacking Force
Temporary force exerted by a device that introduce tension into a pre-stressing tendon.
Soft Story or Stiffness Irregularity
It is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70% of the stiffness of the story above or less than 80% of the average stiffness of the three stories above.
2400kg/m³ or 150lb/ft³
Weight of concrete.
Flat Slab
Type of concrete floor which has no supporting beams.
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