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Risk factors for fluid volume deficit

Excessive sweating
Abnormal drainage or wound losses

insufficient intake could result from

impaired swallowing
inability to access fluids

mild FVD is what % of weight loss


moderate FVD is what % of weight loss


severe FVD is what % weight loss


clinical manifestions of FVD

decreased skin tugor
weight loss
sucken eyeballs
dry mucous membrains
weak pulse; tachcardia
decreased BP
orthostatic hypotension
decreased capillary refill
collapsed jugular veins
less than 30mL/hr urine volume
increased Specific gravity >1.030
increased hematocrit
increased BUN

nursing intervensions for FVD

monitor vitals, weight and temp
access skin turgor
monitor fluid intake and output
admin oral and IV fluids as indicated
mouth care

risk factors for Fluid Volume Excess

-Excess intake of Na containing IV fluids
-Excess of intake of Na in diet or medications like antacids hypertonic enema
-impaired fluid balance regulation related to heart failure, renal failure or cirrhosis of the liver

clinical manifestations of FVE

Weight gain
fluid intake greater than output
FULL POUNDING PULSE; increased BP and tachycardia
distended neck veins
moist crackles in the lungs; dyspnea
mental confusion

nursing interventions of FVE

access for edema
access breaths sounds
monitor intake and output
place in Fowlers position
admin diurretics as ordered
restict fluid intake as ordered
restict dietart sodium as ordered

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