Apex Learning Biology Semester 2 Unit 5.2
Terms in this set (65)
The pathway from the mouth to the anus that moves food and waste products into and out of the body.
One or two glands located on top of the kidneys that produce adrenaline and other related hormones.
A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that increases heart rate and respiration in a fight-or-flight response. also called Epinephrine.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) AIDS destroys the body's immune system, resulting in many symptoms and life-threatening infections in humans, eventually leading to death.
An enzyme that breaks a complex sugar (like starch) into simple sugar (like glucose)
Immune system protein that recognizes and destroys foreign material.
A molecule on the surface of viruses, bacteria, and other kinds of microorganisms or foreign cells. T and B cells recognize antigens and then respond to them.
The opening at the end of the large intestine through which feces is expelled from the body.
A type of lymphocyte made in the bone marrow. When foreign bodies called antigens are present this cell produces plasma cells that make antibodies against the antigens. It also makes memory cells so that it can recognize that specific type of antigen in the future.
A greenish yellow fluid, produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, that helps with fat digestion in the small intestine.
All of the organs that are involved in the breakdown of foods in the body so that nutrients and other materials can be absorbed and separated from waste.
A gland that sends hormones into the bloodstream.
A system of glands in the body that cause the release of hormones (chemical messengers) which balance the body's growth, metabolism and function.
The passageway that pushes food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Also called the urinary system, the system that balances the amount of water withing the cells of the body
A gland that sends materials into a specific location, often outside the body, rather than into the bloodstream.
Solid waste from digestion
A control system that used the information about the output of a process to regulate the rate at which the input process occurs; this in turn affects the output.
An organ that produces hormones and releases them into the bloodstream.
Helper T cell
A lymphocyte that releases chemicals to activat B cells to produce antibodies.
Human immunodeficiency virus. the virus that causes AIDS.
Any chemical in living organisms that is released to help control specific processes.
Having an immune system that can prevent an invader from infecting and causing a disease.
The system in the body that defends against foreign or harmful organisms and material EX: skin, T cells.
Also called vaccination, an injection of a form of disease that will not spread throughout the body. The body makes memory cells against this pathogen and becomes immune to future attacks.
A harmful growth of organisms in the body of another organism.
The increases of blood flow to an injury.
A hormone that lowers blood sugar levels.
An organ found on each side of the human body, slightly aboveKiller T cell the hips. It filters waste out of the blood. These wastes are eliminated from the body in urine.
Killer T cell
A Lymphocyte that uses enzymes to destroy the cell membranes of invaders.
The thick, five-foot-long tube, where water is absorbed from digested food material.
Enzymes that turn fats into fatty acids.
Fluid that is found between cels of the human body and carries white blood cells and fluids from the intestines.
An organ in the immune system that filters lymph. Lymph nodes are located all over the body, and are present in high amounts in the neck, groin, and armpits.
The part of the immune system that transports and filters lymph.
A type of white blood cell that produces antibodies, which are important in the defense against disease.
An enzyme in tears and saliva that breaks down bacterial cell walls.
A type of white blood cell that eats pathogens and other invaders, as well as cellular debris.
Long living T cells that remember pathogens the body has already fought off, so the immune system can respond more effeciently in a future attack.
A tubular until in kidneys that filters blood and produces urine.
A cell that accepts neurotransmitters and releases hormones.
A type of white blood cell that arrives first at the site of invasion to eat bacteria.
Nonspecific immune response
The immune system's first line of defense. It consists of physical barriers, such as skin, and nonspecific. always-present factors such as macrophages.
Enzymes that speed the breakdown of nucleic acids.
A gland behind the stomach that secretes insulin into the bloodstream and enzymes into the digestive system.
One of four glands next to the thyroid and secrete a hormone signaling the release of calcium ions into the blood.
A harmful virus or bacterium
The space between the mouth that serves as a passage for food from the mouth to the esophagus.
The main control center for the releases of hormones located at the base of the brain.
Any enzyme that speeds the breakdown of proteins.
White material made by dead neutrophils. Found around the site of a wound.
The last part of the large intestine in which feces is stored and released through the anus.
The main artery to the kidney which branches directly off of the aorta. Both renal arteries (one for each kidney) carry blood rich in waste products to be filtered by the kidneys.
The main vein leaving the kidney, which returns filtered blood to the inferior vena cava.
An enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch and glycogen into simpler forms.
Glands that produce saliva and secrete it into the mouth.
A long tube (about 22 feet) in which small proteins are broken down into amino acids, and nutrients are absorbed into the blood.
Specific Immune Response
Also called acquired immunity. The immune System's second line of difense, which involves cells learning and memorizing an immunity built against a specific foreign substance.
A carbohydrate that functions in energy stored in plants
A hormone made from cholesterol.
A lymphocyte that can recognize and destroy other cells containing viruses.
A gland in the neck that regulates metabolism, blood calcium levels, and growth.
A substance produced by an organism that is harmful to another prganism
One of the two tubes that cary urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
A thin tube in both men and women that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men this tube also carries semen and seminal fluids.