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Chapter 4 Greece and Rome
Terms in this set (42)
Cyrus the Great
Established massive Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires. A Persian ruler who captured Babylon. He was known for his mercy. He was tolerant of other religions and culture, and even incorporated different architectural styles into his buildings. He was one of the greatest rulers and has set a tremendous example to many societies today.
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end. One god: Ahura Mazda. Not only did this religion influenced the Persian Empire, this religion potentially influenced many popular religion in the modern world today like Christainity and Islam.
Alexander the Great
Son of Philip II of Macedon; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece and Mesopotamia. Known for religious tolerance. A great leader that had a grand military plan and has showed many societies how one should govern troops.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire for over half a century, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. This war brought the the two rivaling city-states, Sparta and Athens, together to defeat the Persians.
One of the pan-Hellenic rituals observed by all Greek city-states; involved athletic competitions and ritual celebrations. Time of peace between Greek city-states.
Ancient city in southern Greece that controlled a Late Bronze Age kingdom. In Homer's epic poems it was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. One of the major centres of Greek city-states, with a strong military leader that has dominated much of Southern Greece.
In Greek mythology, this war was waged against the city of Troy by the Greeks after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. This war was one the most influential events in Greek mythology and in many works of Greek literature like the Odyssey and the Iliad.
Important leader and warrior in Athens during the Golden Age who strengthened democracy, made it possible for poor people to be in the government of Athens, and said there should be equal justice for all people. This orator has fostered many new ideas to the Athenians, culturally and politically, like the Athenian democracy.
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, and discouraged the arts. This city-state continues to inspire the the Western culture called laconophilia.
Powerful city-state in Ancient Greece that was run by a democracy and was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture. Many political and cultural innovations originated in this city-state, and it is widely referred as the birthplace of democracy.
Greek political unit made up of a city and its surrounding land. Each political unit has their own way of governing, making them independent and influencing Greece in their own different way, but was usually brought together during the development of trade routes. This promoted a common language.
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed. This war reshaped Greek's political and cultural structure. It has shattered many city-states that allied with the Athens or Sparta, which ended Greek's Golden Age.
Philip II of Macedon
Ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E.; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece which was subjected to Macedonian authority; father of Alexander the Great.
Time period that emerged after classical Greece and Alexander the Great's death. Rulers glorified themselves as godlike, absolute monarchs. Important advances in math, science, and philosophy.
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
This establishment consisted of the Senate with two consuls who were elected by an assembly dominated by hereditary aristocrats known as patricians. It started to overthrow Roman monarchy and this political structure can still be observed in many modern nations like the Europeans and the Americans.
A type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy. Fostered by Pericles, this type of government remains a unique and intriguing experiment in direct democracy where the people do not elect representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own right.
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.E.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean. Widely known as one of the largest wars that has taken place and has given Rome a superior status that lasted until the 5th century A.D.
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians in 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. However, the Romans refounded the this city and is the 4th most cities until the Muslim conquest in 698, when it was destroyed once again.
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants. One of that greatest military leaders and has give him a superior reputation to the modern world. Influenced strategist like Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington.
(100-47 B.C.E.) Roman general and one of the greatest military leaders in history; he conquered most of Gaul and was named dictator for life in Rome. He was later murdered by a group of senators who opposed his enlarged powers. Known for his military campaigns, many speeches of Cicero were included in many historial writing like the the Sallust.
Great-nephew of Julius Cesar; original name Octavian; defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra; Senate gave him the name Augustus (divine nature of its holder); developed a monarchy disguised as a republic. This ruler initiated a peaceful era known as the Pax Romana.
Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Empire by splitting the empire into two regions run by co-emperors. Also brought armies back under imperial control, and attempted to deal with the economic problems by strengthening the imperial currency, forcing a budget on the government, and capping prices to deal with inflation. Civil war erupted upon his retirement.
Roman emperor ( 312-337 C.E.). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion. Built an imperial residence at Byzantium, known as Constantinople, which was the initial capital of Eastern Rome for another 1,000 year. Many historians believed that his is the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Greek word for city-state. The everyday word politics today, derives from the word polis.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition.) Was usually looked upon as a stage before oligarchy and more democratic forms of polity.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them. This form of government is still used in the modern world today like the United States and India.
Government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representative. This form of government is still used today and was evolved into over forms of government during the European Middle Ages, the Age of Enlightenment, and the American and French Revolutions.
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. Many people believes that this form of democracy is only opposed from a strong, central authority and has inspired many modern thinker like Hannah Arendt and Pierre Clastres.
A government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility. This form of government was usually contrasted with direct democracy and was governed by only the citizens that are destined to lead.
A system of government in which a small group holds power. Used as judges for important political courts and had the power to overrule the Assembly.
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats. During the rise of this power, they began to following the reforms of the tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus.
Two chief executives from the patrician class that were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies. Was considered a representative of Rome's republican heritage and held power of the people, however the Emperor still has the most superior power.
Rome's greatest public speaker; he argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers. He has influenced the Latin language and European literature.
Completed in 449 B.C.E., these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic to protect individual following demands by plebeians. First form of Roman Laws.
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
First Athenian philosopher (470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. Influenced many other philosophers like Plato.
One of Socrates' students. He explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups. He proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled. Founded Athens first institution of higher learning in the Western World and laid foundations of Western philosophy and science. Mentored another great philosopher, Aristotle.
Iliad and Odyssey
Written by Homer. Two epic poems about battles between Greece and the city of Troy. Greeks viewed these as true Greek History.
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus, Rex, and Antigone. They were generally known as Theban plays. This writer influenced the development of drama, by adding a set excitement or plot to the play.
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian Columns
The three types of columns used by the ancient Greeks. Used for building important structures like the Parthenon. Used in many architectural innovations today.
Hellenistic group of philosophers; emphasized inner moral independence cultivated by strict discipline of the body and personal bravery. Stressed "moral and intellectual perfections" and that one should not suffer from deep emotions about themselves. Very popular in the Greece and Roman Empire (e.g. Marcus Aurelius).
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