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Definitions fro book World Cultures and Geography Eastern Hemisphere.


the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations


Land between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Fertile Crescent

A region stretching from the Persian Gulf northwest up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and west over to the Mediterranean Sea


The difference in the elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point.

Plate Tectonics

the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust

Spreading Center

The region at the crest of a mid-ocean ridge, where new crust is being formed by seafloor spreading.

Subduction Fault

a fault along which a tectonic plate subducts under another

Strike/Slip Faulting

When plates of the earth strike each other or slip and make a fault.




the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe


an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River


second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC


middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago


latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)


Site on Jordan River (Israel), on natural corridor out of Afr. No hominid fossils, but stone tools similar to those from E Afr (Oldowan), and many Afr mammal bones, ~1.5-1.6 myr.

Homo Erectus

extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain

Archaic Homo Sapien

~400,000 ya; large brain, forehead, slight brow ridge, rounded skulls

Homo Neanderthal

inhabited parts of Europe and Asia about lived from about 350,000 to 30,000 years ago

Skhul Cave

One of the Middle Paleolithic sites in Israel where modern human skeletons have been found

Shanidar Cave

Neanderthal burial site--individual buried in cave with flowers (pollen)
Evidence of compassion--individual was previously horribly wounded, but survived--had to have been taken care of by someone

Catal Hayuk

A large neolithic city in modern Turkey. The first city ever. They used stone and bone for tools but died out before metal was used. It was from 6500BCE-5700BCE.


The scientific study of spores and pollen.

Plan View Map

The top view of something.

Cross-Section Map

Drawing that shows a view of something as if you could slice through it

Profile Map

a drawing which outlines the surface of the land showing the height and depths of hills and valleys.


Layers of the earth


system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster


the doctrine that reality consists of two basic opposing elements, often taken to be mind and matter (or mind and body), or good and evil

Ahura Mazda

chief deity of Zoroastrianism


of or relating to or being a theocracy


the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud


belief in a single God


Muslim name for the one and only God


a name for the God of the Old Testament as transliterated from the Hebrew consonants YHVH`


a teacher of or believer in Bahaism


a statistic describing the location of a distribution


A set of regularly followed ceremonies.


an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion








large genus of cactuses native to America: prickly pears

Berekhat Ram, Israel

A Palaeolithic site.

Stratigraphic Map

A map showing the areal distribution, configuration, or aspect of a stratigraphic unit or surface, such as an isopach map or a lithofacies map.

Avesta Texts

Primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism


a genus of trees or shrubs


The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.


The sacred book of Christianity, a collection of ancient writings including the books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament.


the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina

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