Test #4-Unit 7 [Cold War Era and Decolonization]
Terms in this set (67)
1947, American policy of providing economic and military aid to "free people" threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece, Iran, and Turkey. This policy was rooted in the idea of containment.
1948, American economic aid program to help Europe rebuild from WW2 and to keep them from turning to communism. Helped Berlin
The two leading countries, US and USSR after WW2
Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union. This era ended when the USSR invaded Afgan
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made between western democracies to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Cuban Missile Crisis
After the US failure to overthrow Castro, known as the Bay of Pigs, USSR sends missiles to Cuba that are pointed toward the US. JFK demands the missiles be taken away. The closest we've come to WW3
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speed up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
(1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel. There is no win in this war, armistice.
Dividing line between North and South Korea
type of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks against the enemy
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. Motivated the US to get involved in Vietnam
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Eventually, Nixon signs a treaty to take the US out of the war, South Vietnam falls to communism.
Failed attempt by USSR to take over Afghanistan - expense/negative public reaction hurt USSR communists - US supported Afghan guerillas
Musilim warriors in Afghanistan, who would in the future become Al Qaeda
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
A policy instituted by Gorbachev in the soviet union in 1985 which means economic restructuring. Local managers gained greater authority over their farms and factories, and people were allowed to open small private businesses. it was to make the economic system more efficient and productive.
East Germany vs. West germany
cold war in Europe
: After the WW2, allied nations split up Germany and were responsible for rebuilding Germany. West Germany was split between western democracies, and east Germany was given to USSR. They implemented communism. Tension.
Berlin Blockade and Airlift
1948-49, USSR wanted to drive Western power from Berlin, so they blockaded Berlin. Instead of leaving, Westerners airlifted supplies. This went on for 11 months until Soviets stopped.
1961, Soviets built a wall to keep people from fleeing to west.
sudden overthrow of the government
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom from British rule. First Sub-Saharan nation to gain independence. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues. Becomes corrupt and is overthrown by military.
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya. After in power, limits freedom and censors press
Mobutu Sese Seku
Dictator of Congo from 1965-97. Backed by the US because of his anticommunism views. Very corrupt.
People who want a government based on Islamic law and beliefs
A region in the Congo that rebels when Belgium rushes Congo to independence in 1960. Appealed from help from the USSR.
When the Ibo people (in oil-rich south aka Nigeria) rebelled and set up the independent republic they called it the Republic of Biafra. This led to famine and death and after 3 years, Nigeria crushed the rebels and reunited the country.
majority group in Rwanda; massacred Tutsis
minority group in Rwanda; hunted by Hutus
a region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict occurs. Arabs attacks this region, and government responds by sending genocide
National Liberation Front
Algerian nationalist set this up, which used guerrilla warfare to win their freedom from the French
Native people in Kenya; considered highlands in Kenya sacred and wanted the land back from the white Kenyan farmers
A violent movement against European settlers that eventually led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain
Ibo declared their region independent calling it Biafra.
- war raged for several years.
A South African policy of complete legal separation of the races, including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites.
The process by which fertile land becomes desert,typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or agriculture.
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
ANC leader imprisoned by Afrikaner regime; released in 1990 and elected as president of South Africa in 1994. First Black President of South Africa
A black Bishop. This man was the leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society.
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
A revolutionary wave of protests and demonstrations overtaking dictators in the Middle East (2011)
The killing of more than 500,000 ethnic Tutsis by rival Hutu militias in Rwanda in 1994. The conflict between the dominant Tutsis and the majority Hutus had gone on for centuries, but the suddenness and savagery of the massacres caught the United Nations off-guard. U.N. peacekeepers did not enter the country until after much of the damage had been done.
the unity of all black Africans, regardless of national boundaries
What is containment? Was it successful? Examples of containment
A policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism. Including forming alliances and helping weak countries resist Soviet advances. It lead to a statement in Korea, did not work in Vietnam, and helped Turkey, Iran and Greece.
What were some of the problems faced by the newly independent African countries? Ethnic conflict? Dictators? Civil War? Where and why did they occur?
Civil wars, military rule, corrupt dictators, trends toward democracy, and ethnic conflict. In Algeria, there were many civil wars once independence was won. Many dictators became corrupt once independence was won.
Which struggles for independence were influenced by the cold war? How so?
Algeria - French had lost Vietnam in the Cold War and didn't want to lose Algeria (fought to keep it).
Angola and Mozambique - The cold war fueled tensions when in Angola, the Soviet Union financed Cuban troops who supported the left-wing govt., while the U.S. backed insurgent anti-communist forces.
General Timeline of the Cold War
'49 Nato Forms. '47 Truman Doctrine. '48 Marshall Plan. '48-49 Berlin Blockade and Airlift. '55 Warsaw Pact. '57 USSR puts Sputnik out into space. '61 Berlin wall goes up. '62 Cuban Missile Crisis. '63 Nuclear Test Pan Treaty. '69 US lands man on the moon
What were the goals of the independence movements? Who might have opposed these movements and why?
The goals were to seek freedom and independence from the Europe country in power. The opposers would be the white people holding power over the African countries.
What was the purpose of the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution in China?
the program was intended to increase farm and industrial production. Instead it produced low quality and less food and useless goods.
What was the purpose of the cultural rev. in China?
To remove bourgeois tendencies from China. Skilled workers and managers were removed from factories and forced to work on farms or in labor camps.
What was the purpose of the 38th parallel and the 17th parallel? What did they signify?
the 38th was where North and South Korea was divided
the 17th parallel was where North and South Vietnam is divided.
Purpose of the Warsaw Pact and NATO?
Warsaw pact-Soviet Pact; A response to NATO
NATO-An alliance between western democracy. Did not want communism to be spread!
What reforms did Gorbachev put in place in the Soviet Union and why?
by implementing policies to bring about individual freedom, bureaucratic transparency and to stimulate economic change, most notably with the Sinatra Doctrine and Glasnost. He wanted to build up the military.
What started the Korean War? Vietnam war? Any similarities between the two?
-North Korea becoming communist started the korean war
-Viet Cong (communist guerrilla organization in the south)
-both started because of communism
What is the purpose of OPEC?
It has to do with pricing of oil.
It is designed to deal with oil pricing and protect the countries that have it
What was the "Arab Spring"?
Pro democracy movements in the Middle East.
Why is there so much conflict between the Israelis and the Arabs?
Because they both feel that Jerusalem is their land that is the birthplace of their religion. They want the land all to themselves.
Why did the Soviet Union take over so much of Eastern Europe after WW2?
The Soviet Union wanted to spread communism through Eastern Europe. Stalin also wanted to create a buffer zone of friendly countries as a defense against Germany
Who gained independence from the British
Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Sudan.
Who gained independence from the French
Who gained independence from Belgium
Congo, Rwanda, and Brundi.
Who gained indépendance from the Portuguese
Angola and Mozambique
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