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Chemistry Semester 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (50)
a halogen atom bearing a negative charge.
those elements within the first two families (Groups I and II on the far left) and the last six families or groups (on the right) of the Periodic Table.
M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
the empirical formula of any ionic or covalent network solid compound used as an independent entity for stoichiometric calculations.
A formula giving the proportions of the elements present in a compound but not the actual numbers or arrangement of atoms.
The quantity of a product that is obtained from a chemical reaction
the substance that is totally consumed when the chemical reaction is complete.
a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of an aqueous solution.
A law stating that the volumes of gases undergoing a reaction at constant pressure and temperature are in a simple ratio to each other and to that of the product.
a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. ( Two Non-Metals)
is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as a noble gas.
the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units.
corresponds to 273 K (0° Celsius) and 1 atm pressure. is often used for measuring gas density and volume.
A formula giving the number of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound.
is calculated to be the experimental yield divided by theoretical yield multiplied by 100%.
The reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when a reaction stops when the limiting reactant is completely consumed.
Graham found experimentally that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles.
states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
an electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.
is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
the percent by mass of each element present in a compound.
It is equal to 6.022×10 23 mol -1
is the amount predicted by a stoichiometric calculation based on the number of moles of all reactants present.
For a fixed amount of an ideal gas kept at a fixed temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional. a gas law, stating that the pressure and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship, when temperature is held constant.
When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be directly related.
he pressure that would be exerted by one of the gases in a mixture if it occupied the same volume on its own.
Why are gases so easily compressed?
Gases can be compressed easily because there is a large amount of space between the individual molecules, which are very active and move around at high speed.
What three factors affect gas pressure? What units are used for these factors?
An increase in the number of gas molecules in the same volume container increases pressure.
A decrease in container volume increases gas pressure.
An increase in temperature of a gas in a rigid container increases the pressure.
pressure (P) in kilopascals.
volume (V) in liters.
temperature (T) in kelvins.
the number of moles (n).
At constant temperature with no change in number of moles of gas, what would happen to the gas pressure if
1) you doubled the volume of the container holding the gas?
2) You decreased the volume of the container by half?
1) Pressure would decrease since there is more space for the molecules to travel
2) Pressure would increase by +1/2
At constant volume and number of mole, what would happen to the gas pressure if :
a) you increase temperature
b) you decreased the temperature
a) Raising the temperature of a gas
increases the pressure if the
volume is held constant.
b)Pressure would decrease and the molecules will not hit the walls as hard
Ideal Gas Constant
A constant, equal to 8.314 joules per kelvin, 0.08206 liter atmospheres per mole kelvin, or 1.985 calories per degree Celsius, that is the constant of proportionality in the ideal gas law.
Ideal Gas Law
the law that the product of the pressure and the volume of one gram molecule of an ideal gas is equal to the product of the absolute temperature of the gas and the universal gas constant.
What does the ideal gas law allow you to calculate? ( that the combined gas law does not allow you to find0?
Number of Moles
What is the equation for the ideal gas law?
Where can one find the ideal gas constant (r)?
Solving for R gives 0.08206 L atm / mol K, when rounded to four significant figures.
When do real gases differ from most idea gases?
It follows that real gases DIFFER most from ideal gases under low temperatures and high pressures.
Combined Gas Law
PV/T = k
P = pressure
V = volume
T = absolute temperature
k = constant
What is the equation for Boyle's Law? What factor must remain constant?
P1V1 = P2V2 Temperature
What does the graph of Boyle's Law look like?
What is the equation for Charles' Law? What factor must remain constant?
What does the graph of Charles' Law look like?
What is the equation for Gay-Lussac's Law? What factor must remain constant?
What unit of temperature must be used when using Charles' Law and GayLussac's
Why does food cook faster in a pressure cooker?
The trapped steam increases the atmospheric pressure inside the cooker by 15 pounds per square inch (psi), or 15 pounds above normal sea-level pressure.
What is the equation for the combined gas law?
Gases of lower molar mass diffuse and effuse (faster/slower) than
gases of higher molar mass.
What is the equation for Graham's law of effusion?
What is the equation for Dalton's law of partial pressure?
According to Graham's law of effusion, the rate of effusion of a gas
is (directly/inversely) proportional to the square root of its molar mass
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