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565 terms

Nutrition Mid Term Review

STUDY
PLAY
The diet-planning principle that provides all the nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health is called
a. variety.
b. adequacy.
c. moderation.
d. kcalorie control.
b
What are the principles of diet planning?
a. Abundance, B vitamins, kcalories, diet control, minerals, and variety
b. Abundance, balance, conservative, diversity, moderation, and vitamins
c. Adequacy, bone development, correction, vitamin density, master, and variety
d. Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
d
Which of the following is the most calcium-dense food?
a. Whole milk
b. Nonfat milk
c. Low-fat milk
d. Cheddar cheese
b
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
a. carry the USDA nutrition labeling.
b. are higher in weight relative to volume.
c. provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
d. contain a mixture of carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
c
The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
a. Variety
b. Balance
c. Moderation
d. kCalorie control
d
Which of the following is an expression of the nutrient density of a food?
a. 0.01 mg iron per kcalorie
b. 110 kcalories per cup
c. 0.5 mg iron per serving
d. 110 kcalories per serving
a
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
a. no kcalories.
b. an abundance of vitamins but little or no minerals.
c. an abundance of minerals but little or no vitamins.
d. energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
d
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
a. safety.
b. variety.
c. moderation.
d. undernutrition.
c
Applying the principle of variety in food planning ensures the benefits of
a. moderation.
b. vegetarianism.
c. nutrient density.
d. dilution of harmful substances.
d
Which of the following practices is not consistent with achieving a healthy diet?
a. Intake of eggs
b. Intake of nuts
c. Emphasis on trans-fat
d. Emphasis on low-fat milk products
c
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
a. Practice good foot hygiene
b. Reduce television viewing time
c. Reduce computer Internet time
d. Engage in regular physical activities
d
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
a. teenage girls.
b. most children.
c. sedentary men.
d. sedentary women.
d
Which of the following is not a feature of a food group plan?
a. Defines serving equivalents
b. Considered a tool for diet planning
c. Sorts foods of similar water content
d. Specifies the number of servings from each group
c
Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Guide.

Which of the following describes the nutritional value of the fruits and vegetables in this menu?
a. A source of vitamin A is missing
b. A source of vitamin C is marginal
c. The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are met
d. The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are exceeded
b
Jamie is a vegetarian who is trying to plan a healthy diet according to the USDA Food Guide. Which of the following meat alternatives would be the best nutrient choices for one day?
a. 2 pieces bacon, ½ can tuna, 2 pieces bread
b. 3 oz. cheese, ½ sweet potato, 2 tbsp peanut butter
c. ½ cup black beans, 2 tbsp peanut butter, 1 c spinach
d. 1 skinless chicken breast, 2 egg whites, meal replacement bar
c
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 33
d. 50
d
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
a. Vitamins D and E
b. Vitamins A and C
c. Protein and calcium
d. B vitamins and iron
b
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
a. It places most foods into one of five groups
b. Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
c. It can be used with great flexibility once its intent is understood
d. It specifies that a certain quantity of food be consumed from each group, based upon energy intake
b
All of the following are examples of legumes except
a. peas.
b. beans.
c. peanuts.
d. potatoes.
d
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
a. Nuts
b. Bacon
c. Baked potatoes
d. Sweet potatoes
a
In which of the following food groups are legumes found?
a. Meats
b. Dairy
c. Fruits
d. Grains
a
Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
a. Coconut
b. Legumes
c. Skim milk
d. Potato salad
b
How many subgroups comprise the vegetable food group?
a. 1
b. 3
c. 5
d. 7
c
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
a. they are economical.
b. they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
c. they can be processed to look and taste like meat.
d. they contribute the same key nutrients, including zinc and protein.
b
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
a. 400-500
b. 600-800
c. 1000-1200
d. 1500-2000
a
General features of legumes include all of the following except
a. they are high in fat.
b. they are low in cost.
c. they are rich in fiber.
d. they include peanuts.
a
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of
a. dairy.
b. fruits.
c. nutrient-dense foods.
d. meats and alternatives.
c
Which of the following foods provides discretionary kcalories for the person on a weight reduction diet?
a. Watermelon
b. Canned pears in syrup
c. Milk with all fat removed
c. Chicken with the skin removed
b
Which of the following foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?
a. Jam
b. Watermelon
c. Raw carrots
d. Brussels sprouts
a
A cup of fresh blueberries is about the size of a
a. golf ball.
b. baseball.
c. grapefruit.
d. marshmallow.
b
Which of the following is not descriptive of MyPyramid?
a. An education tool that illustrates the concepts of the Dietary Guidelines and USDA Food Guide
b. A graphic image designed to encourage consumers to make healthy food and physical activity choices every day
c. A multi-colored pyramid that illustrates variety, with each color representative of the five food groups, plus one for oils
d. A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet
d
What is the assessment tool designed to measure how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid?
a. Healthy Eating Index
b. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
c. Dietitian's Comparative Effectiveness Plan
d. U.S. Public Health Nutrient Assessment Barometer
a
Which of the following is a main criticism of the use of the MyPyramid?
a. It lacks a personalized approach
b. The five food groups are not clearly identified
c. There is no encouragement of physical activity
d. Not enough information is readily available because there is no text
d
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
a. diabetes.
b. terminal diseases.
c. cardiovascular disease.
d. life-threatening obesity.
a
Which of the following is a feature of the exchange list system?
a. Foods are grouped according to their source
b. Adequate intakes of minerals and vitamins are virtually guaranteed
c. A fat portion provides about twice the energy as a carbohydrate portion
d. All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats
d
In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?
a. Fat
b. Meat
c. Carbohydrate
d. Meat substitute
a
Whole-grain flour contains all parts of the grain with the exception of the
a. bran.
b. husk.
c. germ.
d. endosperm.
b
Refined grain products contain only the
a. bran.
b. husk.
c. germ.
d. endosperm.
d
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
a. enrichment.
b. restoration.
c. fortification.
d. mineralization.
c
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
a. Fat
b. Fiber
c. Starch
d. Protein
c
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
a. bran.
b. germ.
c. husk.
d. endosperm.
d
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
a. White
b. Refined
c. Enriched
d. Whole-grain
d
Which of the following is a characteristic of enriched grain products?
a. They have all of the added nutrients listed on the label
b. They have the fiber restored from the refining procedure
c. They have virtually all the nutrients restored from refining procedure
d. They have only 4 vitamins and 4 minerals added by the food manufacturer
a
All of the following are features of the process of nutrient enrichment of flours except
a. it includes products such as pastas.
b. fiber levels are similar to those in the whole grains.
c. it is required of all refined grain products that cross state lines.
d. thiamin and riboflavin are added in amounts exceeding their levels in the whole grain.
b
Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?
a. 20
b. 35
c. 50
d. 100
c
What mineral is added to refined flours in the enrichment process?
a. Iron
b. Iodine
c. Calcium
d. Magnesium
a
Which of the following product labels always denotes a whole-grain product?
a. Multi-grain
b. 100% wheat
c. Whole-wheat
d. Stone-ground
c
The enrichment of grain products in the United States was initiated in the
a. 1840s.
b. 1890s.
c. 1940s.
d. 1990s.
c
Approximately how many years have grain products been subject to nutrient enrichment legislation?
a. 70
b. 100
c. 175
d. 225
a
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
a. Zinc
b. Folate
c. Protein
d. Calcium
b
The "More Matters" food campaign promotes increased consumption of
a. fruits and vegetables.
b. fish and skinless poultry.
c. five to nine kcalories less per day.
d. nonfat dairy products.
a
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
a. frozen dinners.
b. imitation foods.
c. enriched breads.
d. breakfast cereals.
d
Which of the following nutrients would be supplied in much greater amounts from whole-grain bread versus enriched bread?
a. Zinc
b. Folate
c. Riboflavin
d. Thiamine
a
Which of the following nutrients is not supplied in about the same amount by a slice of enriched bread compared with one from whole-grain bread?
a. Iron
b. Niacin
c. Thiamine
d. Magnesium
d
Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately
a. 3 ½.
b. 5.
c. 6.
d. 7.
c
Textured vegetable protein is usually made from
a. soybeans.
b. corn stalks.
c. a mixture of legumes.
d. cruciferous vegetables.
a
Which of the following terms is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?
a. End
b. Round
c. Prime
d. Choice
b
A meat described as "prime cut" means that it
a. has an extended shelf life.
b. usually carries a high price.
c. is served only in restaurants.
d. is higher in fat than other cuts of meat.
d
Which of the following is not the same as fat-free milk?
a. Skim milk
b. No-fat milk
c. 1% milk
d. Non-fat milk
c
What term describes a food that resembles and substitutes for another food but is nutritionally inferior to it?
a. Faux food
b. Pseudo food
c. Imitation food
d. Food substitute
c
According to food labeling laws, acceptable synonyms for nonfat milk include all of the following except
a. skim milk.
b. no-fat milk.
c. zero-fat milk.
d. reduced-fat milk.
d
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
a. The term "fresh" can be used only for raw and moderately processed food
b. Nutrition labeling must appear on virtually all processed as well as fresh foods
c. Restaurant foods must provide nutrient content information on the menu
d. Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
d
A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?
a. Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
b. Red food coloring, salt, dry milk powder, puffed wheat, sugar
c. Dry milk powder, puffed wheat, red food coloring, salt, sugar
d. Puffed wheat, sugar, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
a
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
a. Calcium and Iron
b. Zinc and Phosphorus
c. Fluoride and Chloride
d. Chromium and Magnesium
a
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
a. Salt
b. Sugar
c. Cornstarch
d. Wheat flour
c
By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is
a. 4-6 fluid ounces.
b. 8 fluid ounces.
c. 10-12 fluid ounces.
d. 16 fluid ounces.
b
Approximately how many milliliters constitute a fluid ounce?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
c
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
c
All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except
a. serving sizes for solid foods are expressed in both ounces and grams.
b. small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving.
c. serving sizes on food labels are not necessarily the same as those of MyPyramid.
d. for a given product, the serving size is the same, no matter how large the package
b
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
a. Serving sizes for most foods have not yet been established by the FDA
b. The serving size for ice cream is 2 cups and the serving size for all beverages is 12 fluid ounces
c. Serving sizes on food labels are not always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide
d. Serving sizes must be listed in common household measures, such as cups, or metric measures, such as milliliters, but not both
c
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except
a. the amount recommended for ingestion each day.
b. the amounts of specified nutrients and food components.
c. the net contents expressed by weight, measure, or count.
d. the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
a
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
a. Vitamins D and E
b. Vitamins A and C
c. Thiamin and riboflavin
d. Vitamin B6 and niacin
b
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
a. Daily Values.
b. FDA Standards.
c. Reference Dietary Intakes.
d. Recommended Dietary Intakes.
a
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
a. 1200.
b. 1500.
c. 2000.
d. 2700.
c
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
a. 1500
b. 2000
c. 2500
d. 3000
b
Which of the following foods qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?
a. Cheese with 50 g of calcium
b. Yogurt with 150 mg of calcium
c. Ice cream with 90 mg calcium
d. Whole milk with 300 mg of calcium
b
Which of the following is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?
a. They are updated every two years as mandated by the USDA
b. They are expressed on a "per 1000-kcalorie intake" basis
c. They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient
d. They define a food as an excellent source of a nutrient if it contributes at least 50% of the dietary recommended intake
c
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
a. nutrient claim.
b. lite-food claim.
c. weight reduction claim.
d. structure-function claim.
a
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
a. "Promotes a healthy heart"
b. "This cereal supports heart health"
c. "This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
d. "Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests this product can reduce risk for cancers, FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim"
c
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
a. A series of unqualified health claims on food labels
b. A list of foods conforming to the USDA Food Guide
c. The most nutrient-dense foods found within MyPyramid
d. A list of foods that should be avoided to maintain a healthy diet
a
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
a. The claims cannot be reviewed in a court of law
b. There are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
c. There are three grades of health claim quality: prime, choice, and select
d. All health claims must undergo careful and scientifically thorough evaluation to ensure accuracy
b
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following health claims regarding nutrition and disease except
a. sugar and diabetes.
b. sodium and hypertensioxn.
c. calcium and osteoporosis.
d. lipids and cancer and cardiovascular disease.
a
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
a. They are allowed only for unprocessed food
b. They can be made without any FDA approval
c. They must conform to guidelines of the "A" list of health claims
d. They must state the name of the disease or symptom for which a benefit is claimed
b
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages on food labels represents a qualified health claim?
a. Fiber and cancer
b. Lipids and obesity
c. Calcium and osteoporosis
d. Sodium and high blood pressure
b
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
a. Plant foods only
b. Eggs and plant foods only
c. Meat, eggs, and plant foods only
d. Milk products and plant foods only
d
Tempeh is made from
a. soybeans.
b. any legume.
c. fermented leafy vegetables.
d. fermented yellow vegetables.
a
Which of the following would not be permitted on a macrobiotic diet?
a. Small amounts of dairy
b. Small amounts of seeds
c. Abundant amounts of legumes
d. Abundant amounts of whole grains
a
Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?
a. BHT
b. Tofu
c. Corn starch
d. Diglycerides
b
Which of the following is a feature of people regularly eating meals based on tofu?
a. They show less heart disease but more colon cancer than omnivores
b. They show evidence of marginal protein intake compared with omnivores
c. They have lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels than those eating meat
d. They have lower sodium intakes but blood pressure is similar to those eating red meat
c
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
a. lower body weights.
b. lower rates of anemia.
c. lower blood cholesterol levels.
d. lower rates of certain types of cancer
b
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
a. iron.
b. folate.
c. calcium.
d. vitamin A.
a
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
b. Iron utilization is inhibited by the high zinc content in grains
c. The absorption of iron is low due to the high vitamin C intake
d. More iron deficiency is found in vegetarians than in people eating a mixed diet
a
Textured vegetable protein is usually made of
a. soy protein.
b. fish protein.
c. bean plus rice proteins.
d. bean plus cheese proteins.
a
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
a. fat intake is lower.
b. fiber intake is higher.
c. vitamin B12 intake is higher.
d. intakes of vitamins A and C are higher.
c
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Vitamin B12 in fortified cereals has low bioavailability
b. Vegan mothers need only infrequent intake of vitamin B12-fortified cereals
c. The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may be present in inactive form
d. Infants born to vegan mothers are resistant to the development of vitamin B12 deficiency
c
All of the following are typical characteristics of vegetarians except
a. they are no more iron deficient than are omnivores.
b. their zinc absorption is efficient due to their high soy intake.
c. they are at risk for iodine toxicity when consuming high amounts of seaweeds.
d. their need for calcium can be met, in large part, from enriched soy milk, breakfast cereals, and fortified juices.
b
protein
large, complex molecules found in the cells of all living things; critical components of all tissues including bones and blood
DNA
genetic material in our cells, dictates the structure only of protein molecules
our bodies are able to manufacture (synthesize)
all of the macronutrients
chemicals in proteins
C, H, O, N; we digest protein- containing plant and animal foods, N is released for use in many important body processes
amino acids
nitrogen-containing molecules that combine to form proteins
peptide bonds
link that bind the amino acid "beads" to each other
proteins in our body are made from combo of
20 amino acids; our cells manufacture an estimated 10,000-50,000 unique proteins
at the core of every amino acid molecule
is a central carbon atom; 4 attachment sites
4 attachment sites of carbon atom
hydrogen atom; acid group (all acid groups in AA are identical); amine group (all amine groups in AA are identical); side chain (portion of AA that makes it unique)
amine
nitrogen-containing; nitrogen is essential component of the amine portion of the molecule
essential amino acid
our bodies cannot produce at all OR cannot be produced in sufficient quantites; insufficient amounts we lose our ability to make the proteins and other N containing compounds we need
nonessential amino acid
our body can make in sufficient amounts; don't need them in our diet; we make by combining parts of differnt AA and the breakdown products of carbs and fats
genes
segments of DNA that carry the instructions for assembling available AA into our body's unique proteins
difference in proteins result in the
unique physical and physiological characteristics you possess
dipeptide
2 AA joined
tripeptide
3 AA joined
oligopeptide
string of 4-9 AA
polypeptide
10 or more AA; as it grows, it begins to fold into any of the variety of complex shapes
proteins that form tendons are
much longer than they are wide; tendons are connective tissues that attach bone to muscle and their long rod-like structure provides strong, fibrous connection
proteins that form red blood cells are
globular in shape; allows them to change shape and return to regular shape
denaturation
change in shape; exposed to heat, acids, bases, heavy metals, alcohol
limiting amino acid
essential Aa that is missing or in the smallest supply in the AA pool and is thus responsible for slowing or halting protein synthesis
incomplete amino acid (low quality)
protein that doesn't contain all of the essential AA in sufficient quantities to support growth and health; ex- lentils
complete amino acid
proteins that have all 9 essential AA; ex- animal products such as egg whites, beef, poultry, fish, and dairy products (milk/cheese), soybeans
mutual supplementation
combining two or more incomplete protein sources to make a complete protein
complementary proteins
foods that when combined provide all 9 essential AA; don't need to be eaten at the same meal but should be eaten the same day
we maintain a free pool of AA in
the blood; they combine to synthesize complete proteins
proteins functions best when
we eat adequate amounts of energy as carbs and fat
proteins in the body are
constantly being broken down, repaired and replaced; AA are recycled into new proteins; turnover of proteins from our diet is essential for such cell growth, repair and maintenance
enzymes
proteins that speed up chemical reactions w/o being changes by the reactant; bind substances together or break them apart and can transform one substance into another
hormones
act as chemical messengers in the body; many made from lipids some made from AA; insulin and glucagon, thyroid hormone (helps control resting metabolic rate)
electrolytes
minerals such as sodium and potassium that are able to carry an electrical charge
fluids and electrolytes
must be maintained inside/outside cells and within blood vessels for our bodies to function properly
when protein intake is deficient
the concentration of proteins in bloodstream is insufficient to draw fluid from the tissues causing adema; potentially fatal changes in the rhythm of the heart; muscle weakness and spasms, kidney failure, death
adema
fluid collection in tissues; can lead to serious problems
conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles also depends on
a proper balance of electrolytes
buffers
proteins that help maintian pH; either attract H and neutralize it or release H when blood becomes to basic
when proteins are needed for energy they are
taken from the blood and body tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle; AA are broken down into glucose to provide energy for the brain;
functions of proteins
1- enabling growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues; 2- acting as enzymes and hormones; 3- maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance; 4- maintain pH balance; 5- make antibodies; 6- providing energy when carbs and fat intake are inadequate
dietary proteins are first
digested and broken into smaller particles such as AA, dipeptides, tripeptides; absorbed and transported to cells
HCL
denatures protein in the stomach and converts pepsinogen (inactive) into pepsin (active enzyme); pepsin not denatured by HCL; pepsin breaks down protein into smaller for travel to sm intestine
in small intestine polypeptides are
digested into single amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides by protease; these are absorbed by the cells in the wall of the sm intestine; enzymes in theses cells break down the di/tri peptides into AA; AA transported into the bloodstream to the liver and cells in the body
digestibility of proteins
how efficiently our bodies can digest and abosorb a protein
high digestability foods
animal foods, legumes, soy products
low digestability foods
grains and vegetable proteins
kwashiorkor
common develops when a toddler is weaned from breastmilk and fed a diet high in diluted starches; protein deficiency
marasmus
disease resulting from severe deficits of all of the energy nutrients during times of famine
calculating protein intakes
body weight from lb to kg (divide weight by 2.2); weight in kg X protein recommendation (.8 g/kg body weight/day) = protein intake (g/day)
regular exercise
increases transport of oxygen to body tissues, requiring changes in teh oxygne-carrying capacity of the blood; stimulates tissue growth and causes tissue damage, which must be repaired by additional proteins
most americans already consume
more than twice the RDA for protein
protein needs are higher
in children, adolescents and pregnant/lactating women because more protein is needed during times of growth and development
recommeded percentage of energy from protein
12-20% of total daily energy intake
high protein intake
may increase risk of heart disease, bone loss, and kidney disease (no true evidence of bone loss and kidney disease)
high protein diets composed of animal sources
higher blood cholesterol levels; due to saturated fat in animal products
vegetarians have a great reduced risk
of heart disease
eating too little protein
causes bone loss
more water when eating more protein
protein increases protein metabolism and urea production in the kidneys
urea
waste product that forms when N is removed from the amine group during amino acid metabolism
good sources of protein
meats (lean cuts of beef, pork, poultry, seafood), dairy products (low-fat milk bases products, egg whites), soy products, legumes whole grains, nuts
non meat protein
quorn, protein product derived from fermented fungus
soy is
a complete protein, providing all essential AA
legumes
kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, garbanzo beans, chickpeas, lentils, green peas, black eyed peas, lima beans; high in protein, fiber, iron, calcium and many B vitamins (except B12); low in saturated fat & no cholesterol; usually served with grains
foods not high in protein
fruits, veggies, grains; do provide fiber and many Vit and Minerals & are excellent source of carbs
vegetarianism
practice of restricting the diet to food substances of veg origin including fruits grains and nuts
flexitarian diet
semivegetarians who eat mostly plant foods, eggs, and dairy; occas. eat red meat, poultry and/or fish
reasons people become vegetarians
religious, ethical, food-safety reasons, ecological beliefs, health benefits
mad cow disease
fatal brain disorder caused by prion, abnormal form of protein; BSE
health benefits of vegetarians
reduced risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease; fewer intestineal problems, risk of some cancers (colon cancer), lower consumption of carcinogens that are formed when cooking meat; reduced risk of kidney disease, kidney stones, gallstones
lipids
insoluble in water; found in plants, animals and humans
triglyceride
most commonly found lipid found in foods; 95% of the fat we eat; way most of the fat in our body is stored; molecule of 3 fatty acids and a 3-carbon glycerol
fatty acids
long chains of carbon atoms bound to each other as well as to a hydrogen; contains an acid at one end of their chains
glycerol
alcohol composed of 3 carbon atoms; one fatty acid attaches to each of these 3 carbons to make the triglyceride
trans fats and saturated fats are both
tryglycerides
what makes trans and saturated fats different
how their carbon atoms are bound to hydrogen
in saturated fatty acids a carbon has
2 H and 2 C attachments; no double bonds, saturated w/ H
foods high in saturated fatty acids
butter, lard, cream, whole milk, many cheeses, beef, coconut oil and palm kernel oil
diets high in saturated fatty acids increase
our risk of heart disease
monounsaturated fatty acids
one double bond of C; liquid at room temp; olive oil, canola oil, cashew nuts
polysaturated faty acids
more than one double bond; liquid at room temp; corn and safflower oil
trans fats
rarely occur in nature; extremely small amounts are found only in dairy foods, beef and lamb; amount in food must be mentioned on food labels
rancidity
go bad, can't be stored for long time
hydrogenation
pressurized hydrogen is inserted into the double carbon bonds in the unsaturated fatty acid chains of vegetable oils; straightens out chains, making the liquid fat more solid at room temp and also more saturated, extra H helps the fat resist rancidity
margarine
most common uses of hydrogenation; stick higher trans fat than tub
foods high in trans fats
margarines, commerical frying fats, shortenings, and any processed foods or fast foods made from these products (french fries, doughnuts, cakes, crackers, pie crusts, cookies); become rancid if not properly stored
trans fats change the way our cell membranes
function and reduce the removal of cholesterol from the blood
animal fats provide approx
40-60% of their energy from saturated fats
most plant fats provide
80-90% of their energy from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats
diets higher in plant foods will usually be
lower in saturated fats than animal products
phospholipids
1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate; phosphate make them soluble in water, this allows phospholipids to assist in transporting fats in our bloodstream
blood is about
50% water
phospholipids are present in
peanuts, egg yolk and some processed foods with dispersed fats, such as salad dressings
phospholipids are not
essential in our diets because our bodies make them
sterols
lipid found in foods and in the body; multi-ring structure is quite different from that of triglycerides or phospholipids
sterols are found in
both plant and animal foods and are produced in the body
plants contain some sterols but
they aren't well absorbed and appear to reduce the absorption of dietary cholesterol, the most commonly occurring sterol in the diet
cholesterol
only found in the fatty part of animal products: butter, egg yolks, whole milk, meats and poultry
egg whites, skim milk and lean meats have
little or no cholesterol
don't need to consume cholesterol because
our body continually synthesizes it; mostly in the liver and intestines
cholesterol is important because
it is part of every cell membrane (works with fatty acids to maintain cell membrane integrity); plentiful in the neural cells that make up our brain, spinal cord and nerves
our body uses cholesterol to synthesize
sterol compounds including sex hormones (estrogen, androgen, progesterone), adrnal hormones, bile and vit D
what dietary fat do
provides energy and helps our bodies perform some essential internal functions; enables the transport of the fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
fat provides
9 kcal/gram (carb/protein 4 kcal/gram each); more energy dense
ex of fats dense energy
1 tbsp butter/oil contains 100 kcal where it takes 2.5 c of steamed broccoli or 1 slice of whole wheat bread to equal the same
when we are at rest
30-70% of the energy used by our muscles and organs come from fat
fat also major energy source during
physical activity; regular aerobic exercise burns fat
adipose tissue
body fat
our bodies have little stored carbs (1-2 days worth) and
we don't have anywhere to store extra protein
essential fatty acids
provided by dietary fat; needed to make a number of important biological compounds; essential because the are not made in the body and must be consumd; 2 are linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid
linoleic acid
found in vegetables and nut oils such as sunflower, safflower, corn, soy and peanut oil; transformed into arachidonic acid
arachidonic acid
formed from linoleic acid and is used to make compounds that regulate body functions such as blood clotting and blood pressure
omega-6 fatty acid is
linoleic acid
alpha-linolenic acid
omega-3 fatty acid; found primarily in leafy green vegetables, flax seeds and flax seed oil, soy oil and foods, canola oil and fish products and fish oils
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
two omega-3 fatty acids; found in especially high levels in cold-water fish such as wild salmon, sardines and tuna
benefits of EPA and DHA
form compounds that reduce inflammation in arthritis, asthma and other inflammatory diseases; form compounds that reduce blood clotting, blood pressure and plasma triglycerides all contributing factors in heart disease
vit A
important for vision
vit D
helps maintain bone health
vit E
prevents and repairs damage to cells
vit K
important for blood clotting and bone health
fats are critical for every cell membrane
they help determine what substances are transported in/out of cell; regulate what substances can bind to the cell; help maintain cell fluidity and other physical properties of the cell membrane
how fats help red blood cells
to be flexible enough to bend and move through the smallest capillaries, delivering oxygen to all our cells
dietary fats add
texture and flavor to foods; help us feel satisfied after a meal because of energy density and fats take longer to digest
too much omega-3 can
increase risk of stroke; are high in calories and will contribute to weight gain
preservatives
increase shelf life of foods with fats; some are nutrients (vit E to butter)
because fats aren't soluble in water they can't
enter our bloodstream easily from the digestive tract; must be digested, absorbed and transported differently from carbs/proteins
stomachs role in digestion of fats
is to mix and break up the fat into droplets
when fats enter the small intestine
the gallbladder contracts and releases bile; at the same time, lipid-digesting enzymes produced in the pancreas travel through the pancreatic duct to the small intestine
bile
produced in the liver from cholesterol and stored in the gallbladder; breaks fat into smaller and smaller droplets
pancreatic enzymes take over where the bile leaves off
breaking some of the fatty acids away from the glycerol; each triglyceride molecule is thus broken down into two free fatty acids and one monoglyceride
micelle
spheres of bile and phospholipids that surround the free fatty acids and monoglycerides and transport them to the intestinal cell wall
shorter fatty acids
pass directly across the intestinal cell membrane; then cross into the bloodstream
longer fatty acids
first bind to a special carrier protein and then are absorbed; then are reformed into triglycerides; require special packaging by lipoproteins to cross into the bloodstream
lipoprotein
spherical compound in which triglycerides cluster deep in the center and phospholipids and proteins form the surface of the sphere
chylomicron
specific lipoprotein that transports fat from a meal
where chylomicron unload
if your body needs fat for energy, it will be transported into cells and used for fuel; if not needed it can be used to make lipid-containing compounds such as hormones or bile; it can be stored in you rmuscles or adipose tissue for later use
when fat is stored in the adipose tissue
it needs to be broken down first and transported to the muscle cell before it can be used
ADMR for fat is
20-35% of total energy; 400-700 kcal; 45-77 grams
diets low in fat
may also be deificient in essential fatty acids
linoleic acid per day
11-22g
alpha-linolen acid per day
1.3-2.6 g
why saturated and trans fat increase heart disease
they increase blood cholesterol levels by altering the way cholesterol is removed from the blood
saturated fat/day
7%; we average 11-12%
processed foods hide
fat, especially saturated and trans
whole foods have
rich source of the healthful unsaturated fats
visible fats
added fats- oils, butter, margarine, cream, shortening, dressings; we can easily see we are adding them to our food
invisible fats
fats in prepared and processed foods; they are hidden within the food; majority of our fat comes from here; baked goods, regular fat dairy products, processed meats, fast foods
lower fat foods may not always
have fewer calories
we get adequate amounts of omega-6 fatty acids from
high amount of dressings, veg oils, margarine and mayo
some fish contain
high levels of poisons such as mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other environmental contaminants; can accumulate in the body
those at risk from toxicity
pregnant/breastfeeding women, those planning on it; small children; fish to avoid- raw fish and shellfish of any kind, shark, swordfish, golden bass, golden snapper, marlin, bluefish, large/small mouth bass
fish high in toxicities
shark, swordfish, king mackeral
fat replacers
replacing fat in foods
olestra (olean)
fat replacer; may cause gastrointestinal distress in sensitive individuals or in large amounts
cardiovascular disease
used to refer to any abnormal condition involving dysfunction of the heart and blood vessels; can result in heart attack or stroke
blood lipids
lipoproteins soluble in blood
3 lipoproteins important to consider in discussion of CV health and disease
very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); low-density lipoproteins (LDL); high-density lipoproteins (HDL)
density of a lipoprotein refers to
its ratio of lipid, which is less dense to protein which is very dense
VLDL
mostly lipid and little protein
VLDL
very low density lipoproteins; mostly triglycerides; transport vehicles ferrying triglycerides from their source in the liver/intestine to other cells of the body; those not used transported to the adipose cells for storage
primary source of VLDL
liver; but also produced in the intestines
what increases blood levels of VLDL
diets high in fat, simple sugars and extra calories
what decreases blood levels of VLDL
diest high in omega-3 fatty acids; exercise
LDL
low density lipoproteins; result when VLDL releases its triglyceride laod; higher cholesterol and protein content make LDL more dense than VLDL; circulate in the blood until they are absorbed by they body's cells; deliver cholesterol to the cells
diets high in saturated and trans fats decrease
the removal of LDL by body cells; increase their levels in the blood
scavenger white blood cells rush to
where cholesterol adhere to the wall of the blood vessels and bind cholesterol
as more cholesterol binds to savenger white blood cells
they burst to form plaque (a fatty patch) that hardens and blocks arteries
bad cholesterol
LDL
HDL
high density lipoproteins; small, dense with a very low cholesterol content and high protein content; produced in liver and released to circulate in the blood picking up cholesterol from dying cells and arterial plaque or transferring it to other lipoproteins
good cholesterol
HDL
as dietary level of cholesterol increases
the body decreases the amount of cholesterol it makes; doesn't work for everybody, they have to decrease their intake of animal products or selecting low-fat animal products
total serum cholesterol increased by
high intakes of saturated and trans fatty acids
other risks for cardiovascular disease
overweight, lack of exercise, smoking (70% greater chance than nonsmokers), high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus
cancer develops
as a result of a poorly understood interaction between the environment and genetic factors; most take years to develop; enviroment factors- diet and lifestyle
strongest link between dietary fat and cancer is
prostate cancer; animal fats
carbohydrates
macronutrient; primary energy source, especially for nerve cells; C, H, O; good sources include fruites, vegetables and grains; simple or complex
glucose
most abundant carbohydrate in our diet and in our bodies; produced by plants through photosynthesis; doesn't occur by itself in food; attaches to other sugars in large molecules
simple carbohydrates
contain one or two molecules; monosaccharides, disaccharides; sugars
monosaccharides
only one molecule; glucose, fructose, galactose
disaccharides
two molecules; lactose, maltose, sucrose
lactose
glucose+galactose; one of the three common disaccharides; milk sugar
maltose
glucose+glucose; one of the three common disaccharides; malt sugar; bound together with other molecules; results as a byproduct of larger molecules; sugar fermented during the production of beer and alcohol; not much left after fermentation;
sucrose
glucose+fructose; one of the three common disaccharides; sweeter than lactose or maltose; provides much sweetness in honey, maple syrup, fruits and veggies; t/b/p sugars made from refining from sugarcane and sugarbeets
complex carbohydrates
polysaccharides; long chains of glucose molecules; exist in foods as starch or fibers; glycogen not obtained through our diet;
starch
glucose stored in plants as a complex carb; food sources include grains, legumes and tubers; we digest starch to glucose for energy
fiber
passes through small intestine to large; nondigestible parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems and seeds;long polysaccharide chain; not easily broken down; contribute little or no energy; makes you feel full
glycogen
storage form of glucose in animals; stored in liver and muscles; not found in food and therefore not a source of dietary carbohydrate; stored in liver (70g) and muscles (120g)
dietary fiber
non-digestible part of plants; found in whole grains, vegetables, seeds, legumes, fruits
functional fiber
carbohydrate extracted from plants and added to food; cellulose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium
total fiber
dietary+functional fiber
energy
each gram of carbohydrate= 4 kcal; glucose is an important energy source for brain cells and red blood cells; glucose is especially important for energy during exercise
insufficient carb intake promotes
ketosis; breakdown of fat for energy
excessive ketones can result in
high blood acidity and ketoacidosis
high blood acidity damages
body tissues
not enough carbs
body will make glucose from protein
often proteins are broken down and used for
gluconeogenesis- generating new glucose
salivary amylase
enzyme that begins carbohydrate digestion in the mouth; breaks carbohydrates down to maltose
most chemical digestion of carbs occurs
in the small intestine
pacreatic amylase
enzyme produced in the pancreas and secreted into the small intestine; digests carbohydrates to maltose
maltase, sucrase, and lactase in the small intestine
digest disaccharides to monosaccharides
monosaccharides are absorbed
into the cells lining the small intestine and then enter the bloodstream
lactose intolerance
insufficient lactase production causes an inability to digest lactose found in dairy products; may need to find alternate sources of calcium; enzyme deficiency
symptoms of lactose intolerance
intestinal gas, bloating, nausea, cramping, diarrhea
monosaccharides are converted to glucose by
the liver
glucose circulating in the blood is
our primary energy source
excess glucose is
converted to glycogen by the liver
we don't have the enzymes necessary to digest
fiber
bacteria in the large intestine
can break down some fiber; most is excreted as feces; breakdown causes gas and a few fatty acids; cells of large intestine use fatty acids as energy
level of glucose in the blood must
be closely regulated; altered can cause diabetes or hypoglycemia
insulin and glucagon
hormones that balance each other to maintain blood glucose
insulin
produced by beta cells of the pancreas; helps cells take in glucose from the blood; stimulates the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen; key to open gate in the cell membrane and carries glcose into the cell interior, then use for energy
glucagon
produced by alpha cells of the pancreas; stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose to make glucose available to cells of the body; stimulates gluconeogenesis
gluconeogenesis
the production of new glucose from amino acids
hypoglycemia
low blood sugar (glucose); one cause is excessive insulin production
causes from hypoglycemia
shakiness, sweating, anxiety, weakness, nervousness, rapid or irregular heart beat; ususally occur 1-3 hrs after eating
glycemic index
food's ability to raise blood glucose levels; not always easy to predict
foods with a low glycemic index
cause low or moderate changes in blood glucose, are better for people with diabetes, are generally higher in fiber, may reduce the risk of heart disease and colon cancer
RDA of carbohydrates
130 grams/day just to supply the brain with glucose
daily calorie intake of carbohydrates (AMDR)
45-65%
we should focus on these carbohydrates
complex carbohydrates
diets high in simple sugars
can cause dental problems such as cavities and gum disease; are associated with increased levels of "bad cholesterol"; are associated wtih decreased levels of "good cholesterol"; may contribute to obesity
adequate intake of fiber
25 g/day for women; 38 g/day for men
most americans eat only
half of the recommended amount of fiber
whole grain foods are
more healthful choice than foods with added sugar
diabetes
inability to regulate blood glucose levels
3 types of diabetes
type 1, type 2, gestational
causes of untreated diabetes
nerve damage, kidney damage, blindness, death
symptoms of type 1 diabetes
frequent urination; unusual thirst; extreme hunger; unusual weight loss; extreme fatigue; irritability
symptoms of type 2 diabetes
any of type 1; frequent infections; blurred vision; cuts/bruises that are slow to heal; tingling/numbness in the hands or feet; recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections; some people may not experience any symptoms
type 1 diabetes
10% of all cases; patients don't produce enough insulin; causes hyperglycemia; requires insulin injections; may be an autoimmune disease
hyperglycemia
high blood sugar (glucose); when we eat; glucose in the blood can't help nerve, muscle and other cells function unless it can cross into them
type 2 diabetes
most diabetics have type 2; body cells are insensitive or unresponsive to insulin; excess insulin is often produced; causes hyperglycemia because cells cannot take in the glucose from the blood; healthy lifestyle choices may prevent or delay onset
cause of type 2 diabetes
unclear but genetics, obesity and physical inactivity play a role
treatments of type 2 diabetes
weight loss, diet, exercise and possibly oral medications
photosynthesis
process of chlorophyll absorbing sunlight and provides the energy needed to fuel the manufacture of glucose
plants continually store glucose and
use it to support their own growth
when we eat plant foods
our bodies digest, absorb and use the stored glucose
nonplant sources of carbs
breast milk, cow's milk, cheese, ice cream; milk products contain lactose
fructose
sweetest natural sugar; found in fruits and vegetables; levulose, fruit sugar
high-fructose corn syrup
many processed foods; made from corn and is used to sweeten soft drinks, candy
galactose
doesn't occur alone in food; joins with glucose to create lactose
benefits of fiber in the diet
may reduce the risk of colon cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes; may enhance weight loss; helps prevent hemorrhoids, constipation and diverticulosis; reduce risk for obesity
fiber-rich carbs
fruits, veggies, whole grain; contribute to good health; processed foods (frozen hash browns) retain very little of their original fiber
some of our cells can also use
fat and protein as energy
when you haven't eaten carbs for a prolonged period of time
you get tired, irritable, shaky
carbs provide almost 100% of energy during
maximal effort exercise
ketones
alternative fuel from fat
when the body uses proteins for energy
the proteins can't be used to make new cells, repair tissues or perform any other of their other functions
during periods of carb deprevation
the body will take amino acids from the blood first and then from other tissues like muscles, heart, liver and kidneys; if done too long can damage organs
additional enzymes in the mucosal cells that line th eintestinal tract work to break down
disaccharides into monosaccharides
milk allergy
immune reaction to the proteins found in cow's milk
glycogen/carb reloading
endurance athlete increase their storage of muscle glycogen from 2-4X the normal amount
true hypoglycemia is
rare; diabetes can develop if inject too much insulin or when they exercise and fail to eat enough carbs; can be caused by pancreatic tumor liver infection or other underlying disorder
high glycemic index cause
sudden spike in blood glucose, triggers surge in insulin, followed by a dramatic fall in blood glucose
low glycemic index cause
low to moderate fluctuations in blood glucose
glycemic index value is compared to
glycemic effect of pure glucose
low glycemic foods
beans, lentils, fresh veggies, whole wheat bread
glycemic load
amount of carbs it contains multiplied by its glycemic index; thought to be better indicator of the effect of a food on a person's glucose response; factors in both the glycemic index and the total grams of carbs of the food that is consumed
added sugars
sugars and syrups added during processing and preparation; high-fructose corn syrup; not chemically different from naturally occuring sugars
not enough evidence to say that
too much sugar causes hyperactivity or other behavioral problems
consuming a diet high in simple sugars can lead to
unhealthful changes in blood lipids
higher intakes of simple sugars are associated with
increases in blood lipids that contribute to heart diesase and decrease in blood lipids that are considered protective against heart disease
those at risk for heart disease should
eat a diet low in simple sugars
no evidence that eating a diet high in sugar causes
diabetes
those with diabetes need to moderate their
intake of sugar and closely monitor their blood glucose levels
no evidence to convincingly porve that sugar intake causes obesity however
overweight children consumed more sugared soft drinks
whole grain foods
prompt a more gradual release of insulin and result in less severe fluctuations in both insulin and glucose; provide more nutrients and fiber than foods made with enriched flour
wheat flour on labels
refers to enriched white flour, not whole wheat flour
AI for fiber
14 g/1000 kcal per day
excessive fiber leads to
intestinal gas, bloating, constipation, dehydration; can reduce our absorption of important nutrients such as iron, zinc, and calcium; malnutrition
diabetes
chronic disease in which the body can no longer regulate glucose within normal limits, and blood glucose levels become dangerously high or fall dangerously low
diabetes leads to
blindness, seizures, kidney failure, nerve disease, amputations, stroke and heart disease
type 1 diabetes
body cannot produce enough insulin; glucose levels soar when they eat, pancreas unable to secrete insulin in response; warning sign frequent urination; brain not getting glucose to function; leads to ketoacidosis
cause of type 1 diabetes
unknown but may be an autoimmune disease
type 1 diagnosed around
10-14 years of age, occurs in families
treatment for type 1
insuline shot
type 2 diabetes
body cells become resistant, less responsive to insulin; develops progressively
obesity is the trigger for
type 2 diabetes; insulin insensitivity; pancrease attempts to compensate for insensitivity by secreting more insulin
causes of type 2
genetics, obesity and physical inactivity; develops after 45, 20% of people over 65 have it;
treatment for type 2
weight loss, healthful eating patterns, regular exercise; more severe require oral meds; need to eat less carbs, eat more fat or protein; avoid alcohol
satiation
makes you feel full and cause you to stop eating
hypothalamus
above the pituitary gland in the forebrain; regulates involuntary activity; integrates signals it receives from nerve cells throughout the body; stimulates hunger/satiation
glucose
(breakdown of carbs) most readily available fuel; low levels promp hypothalamus to eat
hormones/hormone like substances
also signal the hypothalamus to cause us to feel hungery/satiation
proteins
have the highest satiety value; will cause us to feel satisfied longer
high-fat meals
have a higher satiety value than low fat foods
fats
more energy dense (kal/g) than proteins and carbs; quite satisfying
bulky meals
much fiber and water is within a food; stretch the stomach and small intestine
beverages
lest satisfying than semi-solid foods
semi-solid foods
less satiety that solid foods
food preference
learned response; cultures teach us what to eat; we can learn to enjoy new foods anytime (traveling); change when people learn what foods are most healthful; learn to dislike foods (episode of food poisoning)
atoms
smallest units of matter, cannot be broken down by natural means
molucules
atoms bonding together in nature
nutrient molecules
our body needs a steady supply broken down from proteins, carbohydrates and fats
cell membrane
plasma membrane; semi-permeable; controlls what molecues go in and out of the cell
semi-permeable
some compounds can easily flow through, others cannot
cell nucleus
genentic information, DNA is located
DNA
instructions that the cell uses to make proteins
mitochondria
cell's powerhouse; produce the energy molecule ATP from food molecules
ATP
adenosine triphosphate
hunger pangs
involuntary movement of the GI tract
amylase
found in saliva; enzyme; chemical that begins to break apart carbohydrate molecules; destroyed when it hits the acidic stomach
saliva
also contains other components such as antibiotics that protect the body from germs entering the mouth and keep the oral cavity free from infection
brain is sent a signal to temporarily close the openings to the nasal passages
preventing aspiration of food or liquid into the sinuses
epiglottis
trapdoor covering the entrance of the trachea; signals sent from brain
esophagus
two sets of muscles: inner sheets of circular muscle squeeze food, while outer sheets of longitudinal muscle push food along
gravity
also helps transport food down the esophagus
gastroesophageal sphincter
food hit the end of the esophagus, it relaxes to allow food to pass into the stomach
stomach
holds several cups of food; brain sends signals telling it to be ready for the food; stores food until small intestine ready; held about 2 hrs
pepsin
enzyme that starts to break down proteins
gastric lipase
enzyme that starts to break down fats
mucus
secreted by the stomach, protects its lining from being digested by the HCl and pepsin
most absorption occurs in small intestine but
the stomach lining does begin absorbing water, some minerals and some fats, certain drugs- aspirin and alcohol
duodenum
first part of the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
regulates the release from the stomach to the duodenum
chewing
initiates mechanical and chemical digestion
cephalic phase of digestion
prepares the GI tract for breakdown of food
3 parts of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
jejunum
middle portion of the small intestine
ileum
connected to the large intestine at the ileocecal valve (a sphincter)
small intestine
where most digestion and absorption occurs
accessory organs
organs that assist digestion but are not part of the GI tract
gallbladder
contract to send bile intothe duodenum
bile emulsifies the fat
breaks it up into smaller particles that are more accessible to digestive enzymes
pancreas
gland that manufactures, holds and secretes digestive enzymes; located behind the stomach; manufactures hormones that are important in metabolism- insulin, glucagon
GI tract
well suited for absorption; heavily folded, folds hold villi
villi
small finger-like projections whose constant movement helps them to encounter and trap nutrient molecules; here nutrients encounter capillaries (tiny blood vessels) and lacteal (small lymph vessel)
microvilli
tinier hairlike structures that form a surface somewhat like the bristles of a hairbrush
microvilli, villi
increase surface area of small intestine by more than 500X
capillaries and lacteals
soak up the final products of digestion and begin their transport via the circulatory system
vitamins/minerals
not digested the same way as macronutrients; small enough so don't have to be broken down
water
readily absorbed along the entire length of the GI tract; small enough it can easily pass through cell membrane; significant % absorbed in the large intestine
blood and lymph
two main fluids that transport nutrients, water and waste products through our body
blood
travels through the cardiovascular system; as it travels throught the GI tract, it picks up nutrients and fluids that were absorbed through the villi of the small intestine; delivers it to other body cells; waste products are filtered and excreted by the kidneys
lymph
travels through the lymphatic system; most fats and fat soluble vitamins picked up as; returns to an area near the heart where the lymphatic and blood vessels join together
portal vein
carries most nutrient absorbed from the small intestine to the liver
liver
500 discrete functions; receive the products of digestion and release into the bloodstream those nutrients needed throughout the body; major role in processing, storing, and regulating the blood levels of the energy nutrients; filters the blood, removing potential toxins like alcohol and other drugs; synthesize many chemicals used by the body in carrying out digestion
ileocecal valve
sphincter that connects the cecum to the ileum of the small intestine
cecum
sack of tissue; first part of the large intestine
ascending colon
up the right side of your abdomen alongside the small intestine
transverse colon
runs across the top of the small intestine
descending colon
down the left side of the abdomen
sigmoid colon
last segment of the colon and extends from the bottom left corner to the rectum
anal canal
last segment of the large intestine
large intestine
any undigested and unabsorbed food components and water mix with intestinal bacteria; they finish digestion; main functions are to store chyme for 12-24 hrs and to absorb chemicals and water from it leaving feces
feces
semisolid mass (poop)
enteric nerves
work with the brain to achieve digestion, absorption and elimination of food; coordination and regulation of digestion is directed by the nervous system
when gastroesophageal spincter becomes irritated or over relaxed
HCl seeps bak up inot the esophagus; esophagus doesn't have coat of mucus like the stomach
GERD symptoms
chest pain, trouble swallowing, burning in the mouth, feeling that food is stuck in the throat and/or hoarsemess in the morning
factors of GERD
cigarette smoking, alcohol use, overweight, pregnancy, lying down after eating, certain foods
hiatal hernia
upper part of the stomach lies above the diaphragm muscle
gastric ulcer
stomach area
duodenal ulcer
part of the duodenum closest to the stomach
peritonitis
ulcer entirely perforates the tract wall, stomach contents can leak into the abdominal cavity; life threatening infection
anaphylactic shock
inflammation widespread, affecting essentially all of the body systems; left untreated it is nearly always fatal
epinephrine
can reduce symptoms for long enough to buy time to get emergency care from anaphylactic shock
causes of diarrhea
infection of the GI tract, chronic disease, stress, food intolerances, reactions to meds, bowel disorder
acute diarrhea
less than 3 weeks; infection
chronic diarrhea
allergy to cow's milk, IBS, or other disease
traveler's diarrhea
dysentery; consuming water or food that is contaminated with fecal matter
causes of constipation
when people travel, schedule is disrupted, change diet, medications
IBS symptoms
abdominal cramps, bloating, constipation/ diarrhea; 20% americans; 2x as many women than men; around 20 years of age; may arise from the way the grain interprets information from the colon or from anormal functioning of serotonin
serotonin
thought to influence mood, but in the colon, where 95% of the body's serotonin is found, it promotes peristalsis; normal movement of the colon is disrupted
IBS cause
unknown
appetite
a psychological desire to consume specific foods
hunger
a physiologic sensation that prompts us to eat
hypothalamus
region of the forebrain below the thalamus where viseral sensations such as hunger and thirst are regulated
hormone
chemical messenger that is secreted into the bloodstream by one of the many glands of the body
cell
smallest unit of matter that exhibits the properties of living things, such as growth, reproduction and metabolism
cell membrane
boundary of an animal cell that seperates its internal cytoplasm and organelles from the external environment
cytoplasm
the liquid within an animal cell
organelle
a tiny "organ" within a cell that performs a discrete function necessary to the cell
tissue
a sheet or other grouping of like cells that performs like functions
organ
body structure composed of two or more tissues and performing a specific function
system
a group of organs working togehter to perform a unique function
digestion
the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules, both mechanically and chemically
absorption
physiologic process by which molecules of food are taken from the GI tract into the body
elimination
the process by which the undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body
gastrointestinal tract
long muscular tube consisting of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
sphincter
a tight ring of muscle seperating organs of the GI tract and opening in response to nerve signals indicating that food is ready to pass into the next section
cephalic phase
earliest phase of digestion in which the brain thinks about and prepares the digestive organs for the consumption of food
saliva
mixture of water, mucus, enzymes and other chemicals that moistens the mouth and food, binds food particles together and begins the digestion of carbohydrates
salivary glands
group of glands found under and behind the tongue and beneath the jaw that release saliva continually as well as in response to the thought, sight, smell or presence of food
enzymes
small chemicals, usually proteins, that act on other chemicals to speed up body processes
esophagus
muscular tube of the GI tract connecting the back of the mouth to the stomach
peristalsis
wave of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food in one direction through the length of the GI tract
stomach
J shaped organ where food is partially digested, churned and stored until released into the small intestine
gastric juice
acidic liquid secreted within the stomach that contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin and other chemicals
chyme
semifluid mass consisting of partially digested food, water and gastric juices
small intestine
largest portion of the GI tract where most digestion and absorption occurs
gallbladder
a sack of tissue beneath the liver that stores bile and secretes it into the small intestine
bile
fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that emulsifies fats in the small intestine
pancreas
gland located behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes
brush border
term that describes the microvilli of the small intestine's lining, which tremendously increase its absorptive capacity
lacteal
a small lynph vessel located inside of the villi of the small intestine
liver
largest organ of the GI tract and one of the most important organs of the body; functions include production of bile and processing of nutrient-rich blood from the small intestine
large intestine
final organ of the GI tract consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal; in which most water is absorbed and feces are formed
enteric nerves
nerves of the GI tract
heartburn
painful sensation that occurs over the sternum when hydrochloric acid backs up into the lower esophagus
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice per week
peptic ulcer
area of the GI tract that has been eroded away by the acidic gastric juice of the stomach; causes are H. pylori infection or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
food allergy
an allergic reaction to food caused by a reaction of the immune system
diarrhea
condition characterized by the frequent passage of loose, watery stool
constipation
condition characterized by the absence of bowel movements for a period of time that is significantly longer than normal for the individual; when a bowel movement does occur, stools are usually small, hard and difficult to pass
irritable bowel syndrome
a bowel disorder that interferes with normal functions of the colon; causes abdominal cramps, bloating and constipation or diarrhea
health
the merging/balancing of physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of health
nutrition
study of food and how it nourishes the body and influences health
nutrients
chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function
wellness
physical, emotional and spiritual health;absence of disease
dietary standards
a guide to adequate nutrient intake levels against which to compare the nutrient values of foods conumed
proteins
major role in building new cells and tissue, maintaining bones, repairing damaged structures, regulating metabolism; can supply 4 kcal of energy/g; not a primary energy source; found in meats, dairy products, seed, nuts, legumes
vitamins
assist in regulating body processes; do not supply energy; micronutrients that contain carbon
minerals
Na, Ca, Fe, K, Mg; functions as energy production, fluid regulation and bone structure; micronutrients that do not contain carbon and are required for body processes, are not broken down during digestion/absorption, not destroyed by heat/light
carbohydrates
primary fuel source for our bodies, particularly our brain and for physical exercise; found in grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes; provide 4 kcal/g of carbohydrates
food
the plants and animals we eat
Healthy People 2010
an agenda that emphasizes health promotion and disease prevention across the US by identifying goals and objectives that we hope to reach as a nation
nutrition and physical activity
components of wellness
goals for a healthful diet
preventing nutrient deficiency diseases, lowering the risk for chronic diseases, lowering the risk of diseases in which nutrition plays some role
carbohydrates, fats/oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water
6 groups of nutrients found in the foods we eat
macronutrients
nutrients required in relatively large amounts; provide energy; carbohydrates, fats/oils, proteins
kilocalorie
way we measure energy; amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 degree C;
fat/oil
important energy source during low intensity exercise or rest; provide 9 kcal/g; butter, margarine, veg oils
fiber rich carbohydrates
nondigestible parts of plants that offer a variety of health benefits
phytochemicals
plant chemicals that are thought to reduce our risk for cancer and heart disease
micronutrients
nutrients required in smaller amounts; vitamins and minerals
fat soluble
stored in the body, toxicity can occur from consuming excess amounts which accumulate in the body; K,A,D,E
water soluble
not stored to any extent in the body, toxicity only occurs as a result of vitamin supplementation; C and the B vitamins
major minerals
minerals we need to consume in amounts of at least 100mg/day; Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl
trace minerals
minerals we need to consume in amounts less than 100mg/day; Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Fl
water
fluid balance; nerve impulses, muscle contractions, nutrient transport, removal of wastes, chemical reactions; vital for survival
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
list of dietary standards; identify the optimum amt of a nutrient to prevent a nutrient deficiency, reduce risk of chronic disease
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
the average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the people in a particular category
Recommended Dietry Allowance (RDA)
the average daily intake level requiredto meet the needs of 97%-98% of people in a particular category
Adequate Intake (AI)
recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient; used when RDA is not yet established
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
the highest average daily intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse effects on the health of most people
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)
the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance
DRIs for most nutrients
EAR, RDA, AI, UL
DRIs for energy and macronutrients
EER, AMDR
AMDR for healthful diets
carbohydrates 45-65%; fat 20-35%; protein 10-35%
Dietary Guidelines for Americans (d)
general advice for nutrition and health from US dept of Agriculture and the US dept of health and human services; revised every 5 years (2005), emphasize good food choices and physical activity
dietary guideline for americans
achieve/maintain a healthy weight; 30 min/day moderate activity; wide variety of fruits/vegetables; limiting saturated fats/ trans fats and sodium; choose high fiber and whole grain foods; moderate alcohol consumption
tools for designing a healthful diet
dietary guidelines, mypyramid, diet plan, food labels
Registered dietitian (RD)
possesses at least a BS and has completed a defined content of course work and experience in nutrition and dietetic; usually meets eligibility requirements of the commission on dietetic registration
nutritionist
term generally has no definition or laws regulating it; anyone who thinks he/she is knowledgeable about nutrition
quackery
promotion of an unproven remedy, such as a supplement or other product or service, usually by someone unlicensed and untrained
trustworthy experts
registered dietitian, licensed dietitian, nutritionist, professional with an advanced degree in nutrition, physician
licensed dietitian
dietitian meeting the credentialing requirement of a given state in the US to engage in the practice of dietetics
getting nutrition advice
CDC, National Institute of Health, american dietetic assoc., american society for nutrition science, american college of sports medicine
healthful diet
provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients and is adequate, moderate, balanced and varied
adequate diet
provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber abd vitamins to maintain a person's health
moderation
eating the right amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize our bodies' functioning
balanced diet
contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper balance of nutrients
variety
eating a lot of different foods each day
mypyramid
diagram of the types and relative quantities of foods for good nutrition; developed 2005; will cont to change as more is learned about nutrition; aimed to- increase vit, min, dietary fiber and other nutrient intake, lower fat/cholesterol intake, increase fruits/veg/ whole grains intake, balance energy intake with energy expenditure to maintain a healthy body weight
6 components of mypyramid
activity, gradual improvement, moderation, personalization, proportionality, variety
activity
reminds us to be physically active every day
moderation (mypyramid)
wider base of each food group reminds us to choose more of the most healtful foods in each group, narrow apex reminds us to choose fewer of the less healthful foods in each group
personalization
encourages us to design a diet and determine a level of activity that is healthful for us
proportionality
differing widths indicate how much food a person should consume from each group in proportion to the other groups
variety (mypyramid)
color coded bands represent the different categories of foods and oild that should be eaten each day
gradual improvement
people can benefit from taking small steps each day to improve their diet and lifestyle
discretionary calories
represents the extra amount of energy you can consume after you have met all of your essential needs by consuming the most nutrient dense foods that are lowfat or fatfree and that have no added sugars
ounce-equivalent
a serving size that is 1 ounce, or equivalent to an ounce, for the grains section and the meats and beans section of mypyramid
nutrient density
relative amount of nutrients per amount of energy (number of calories)
5 components of food labels
statement of identity; net contents of the package; name and address of manufacturer; ingredient list; nutrition facts panel
how to read the nutrition facts panel
serving size/servings per container; total calories/calories from fat per servings; list of nutrients (fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbs, proteins, some vit/min); percent daily values; footnote
nutrition facts panel
contains the nutrition information required by the FDA; can be used to plan healthful diet
percent daily values
how much a serving of food contributes to your total intake of nutrients; based on an RDI, DRV
footnotes
general dietary advice; compares 2000/2500 calorie diets
Diabetic Exchange List Food Groups
Carbohydrates
Starch: One exchange contains about 15 grams of carbs, up to 3 grams of protein, up to 1 gram of fat, and 80 calories. Plus, whole grain foods average about 2 grams of fiber per serving.
Fruit: One exchange contains about 15 grams of carbs, no protein or fat, and 60 calories. Plus, fresh, frozen and dry fruits have about 2 grams of fiber per serving.
Vegetables(non-starchy): One exchange contains 5 grams of carbs, 2 grams of protein, no fat and only 25 calories, plus2-3 grams of dietary fiber.
Milk: One exchange contains about 12 grams of carbs and 8 grams of protein, plus:
Fat-free or low-fat = 0-3 grams of fat and 90 calories
Reduced fat = 5 grams of fat and 120 calories
Whole milk = 8 grams of fat and 150 calories
Other carbs (desserts, sweets)
Meats and meat substitutes: One exchange has 7 grams of protein, plus:
Very lean meats = 0-1 grams fat and 35 calories
Lean meats= 0 to 3 grams of fat and 55 calories
Medium-fat meats= 4 to 7 grams of fat and 75 calories
High-fat meats = 8 or more grams of fat and 100 calories
Fats: One fat exchange equals 5 grams of fat and 45 calories
Monunsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated fats
Saturated fats