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50 terms

Psychology: a journey CH3

chapter 4- Quiz
STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following statements is true regarding the roles that heredity and the environment play in one's development?
- heredity gives each of us a variety of potentials and limitations
- One's potentials are affected by environmental influences, such as learning, nutrition, disease and culture
- one's development is a constant interaction btwn the forces of nature and nurture
the importance of heredity stems from the fact that it
sets the limits of development by providing a framework of potentials and limitations
Psychologists generally resolve the nature-nurture debate by agreeing that
heredity and environment are interacting and inseparable factors in development
The long, ladder-like chains of chemical molecules that act as a code for genetic information are known as
DNA
Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information are called
genes
Bruce has a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. Bruce's eyes color would be
Brown
Heredity can have an effect on
-eye and skin color
-susceptibility to some diseases
-personality traits
Joey's mother was amazed by her two-year old son. He was a very friendly, agreeable child, who always seemed to be relaxed and in a good mood. Thomas and Chess would describe Joey as an ______ child.
easy
Sensitive periods in development are characterized by
relatively permanent changes
If a mother smokes heavily during pregnancy, it is more likely that the infant will be born
premature and underweight
A lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love is referred to as
deprivation
which of the following would NOT be part of an enriched environment for children?
limiting what a child can touch in order to present these sensations systematically
Jana is an easy baby who smiles and vocalizes frequently, which encourages her parents to smile and talk to her more. This, in turn, causes Jana to smile and interact more. This illustrates
reciprocal influences
The three factors combining to determine a person's developmental level at any stage of life are
heredity, environment, and the person's own behavior
a newborn infant during the first weeks following birth is called an....
neonate
the_______ reflex helps a baby find a bottle or breast
rooting
which of the following would provide your newborn with the best visual stimulation?
a human face pattern
proximodistal means...
from the center of the body to the extremeties
muscular control spreads in a pattern from head to toe, according to the
cephalocaudal principle
Children who were raise in overcrowded Romanian orphanages and got almost no attention from adults for the first year or two of their lives exhibited which of the following behaviors when adopted by American and Canadian families?
- exhibited poor attachment to their new parents
- did not like to be touched or make eye contact with others
- wandered off with strangers
which of the following is NOT one of the parenting styles identified by Baumrind?
proactive
As a parent, you want your daughter to grow up to be a mature, independent adult who will act responsibly and make good decisions. To accomplish this you should...
- combine love and encouragement with firm and consistent guidance
-explain your decisions
-respect your child's right while also expecting her to take less responsibility for her actions.
Antoine refers to reason with his children and discuss the limits he sets. His children tend to be very friendly, self-reliant, and socially responsible. According to the research on parenting styles, Antoine is exhibiting ___parenting
authoritative
fathers are more likely than mothers to
engage in usual play
In this culture, the father is a strong authority figure who demands obedience from the children at an early age so the family will note be shamed by the child's misbehavior. Punishment generally consists of spankings and teasing, while success, generosity, hospitality, thrift, conservatism, and educational achievement are highly valued by
Arab American Families
the normal order of language development in infancy is
crying, cooing, babbling, single word, telegraphic speech
Brett's speaking vocabulary includes more than 4000 words and he is able to understand more than twice that many. He is most likely
in first grade
exaggerated or musical voice inflections are characteristic of
parentese
when parents around the world use a short, sharp rhythm, they are
warning their bby
if a two year old says "water go".. and the parents with a correct structured grammar..the parent is..
seeking to clarify what was said and prompt the child to say more
which of the following is False concerning language conversational development?
a biological predisposition determines if we will speak English or Vietnamese, Spanish, or Russian
"...as soon as she puts the keys out of sight behind her back, Eric stops crying and becomes interested in something else. This story demonstrates Eric's lack of...
object permanence
The concept that mass, weight, and volume remain unchanged despite changes in the appearance of the objects is called...
conservation
Which of the following is the most appropriate way of stimulating intellectual development in children at the sensorimotor stage?
active play such as peekaboo
Recent research on infant cognition suggests that infant cognitive abilities emerge
before one year of age
Which of the following may explain why Piaget underestimated the abilities of infants?
limited physical skills were mistaken for limited cognitive skills
like Piaget, Vygotsky, believed that children
actively seek to discover new principles
Vygotsky realized that some task are just beyond a child's reach. However, children receiving sensitive guidance from skilled partners could make rapid progress. Interactions like this are most helpful when they take place within a child's
zone of proximal development
In the example of the moral dilema involving the druggist, which of the following responses would demonstrate the preconventional level?
Even if he steals the drug, his wife will probably die before he gets out of jail
Erikson believes that the major developmental task facing a child from one to three in the second state of development is
developing a sense of autonomy
Little Billy is constantly climbing, exploring, and trying to do things for himself. His parents try to restrict this exploring and also tend to ridicule his efforts when he makes a mess. According to Erikson, the actions of Billy's parents may cause Billy to feel
shame and doubt.
skills that require speed and rapid learning are referred to as
fluid abilities
studies suggest that the healthiest elderly individuals
exhibit gratitude and forgiveness
when Sidney misbehaves, his mother takes away his phone privileges or takes away his video game system. Sidney's mother is using the ________ discipline technique.
power assertion
Reasoning, recognition, and approval are examples of..
management techniques
Melissa is often described by her teacher as a model child or unusually good. However, she also tends to be somewhat insecure, anxious, and dependent on adults for approval. According to the research on child discipline techniques, Melissa's parents most likely used the __________ discipline technique.
withdrawal of love
which discipline technique is associated with the highest levels of self-esteem in children?
management technique
According to the author of your textbook, the general guidelines for using punishment include ...
- that spankings are most effective for children ages two-five years.
- that parents should separate their disapproval of the act from disapproval of the child
-that parents should reserve spankings for situations that pose and immediate danger to younger children
Threatening, accusing, bossing, and lecturing children are most characteristic of..
you-messages
Johnny's mother tells him that she has a headache and would like him to bounce his ball outside and not in the house. If he continues to bounce his ball in the house, mother will put away the ball. this would be a..
logical consequence