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Health 230 Chapter 3

Epidemiology
STUDY
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epidemiology
study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations
epidemic
an unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health related behavior, or other health related event in a particular pop
endemic disease
a disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
pandemic
an outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area such as a continent
cases
people afflicted with a disease
natality rate
the number of live births divided by the total population
morbidity rate
the rate of illness in a population
mortality rate
the number of deaths in a population divided by the total population
population at risk
those in the population who are susceptible to a particular disease of condition
incidence rate
the number of new health related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk during a particular period of time, divided by the total number in that same pop
acute disease
a disease that lasts three months or less
prevalence rate
the number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time, divided by the total number in that population
chronic disease
a disease or health condition that lasts longer than 3 months
attack rate
an incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak and expressed as a percentage
crude rate
a rate in which the denominator includes the total population
crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1,000 in a given period of time
crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1,000 in a population in a given period of time
age-adjusted rate
rate used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over time when groups differ in age structure
specific rate
a rate that measures morbidity or mortality for particular populations or diseases
cause-specific mortality rate
the death rate due to a particular disease
case fatality rate
the percentage of cases of particular disease that result in death
proportionate mortality ratio
the percentage of overall mortality in a population that is attributable to a particular disease
notifiable diseases
infectious diseases for which health officials request or require reporting for public health reasons
life expectancy
the average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time
years of potential life lost
the number of years lost when death occurs before the age of 65 or 75
disability-adjusted life years
a measure for the burden of disease that takes into account premature death and loss of healthy life resulting from a disability
health-adjusted life expectancy
the number of years of healthy life expected, on average, in a given population
descriptive study
an epidemiological study that describes an epidemic with respect to person, place, and time
epidemic curve
a graphic display of the cases of disease according to the time or date of onset of symptoms
point source epidemic curve
an epidemic curve depicting a distribution of cases that all can be traced to a single source of exposure
incubation period
the period between exposure to a disease and the onset of symptoms
propagated epidemic curve
an epidemic curve depicting a distribution of cases traceable to multiple sources of exposure
analytic study
an epidemiological study aimed at testing hypotheses
risk factors
factors that increase the probability of disease, injury, or death
case/control study
a study that seeks to compare those diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for prior exposure to specific risk factors
cohort study
an epidemiological study in which a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observed to determine the rates at which disease develops in each class
cohort
a group of people who share some important demographic characteristic
odds ratio
a probability statement about the association between a particular disease and a specific risk factor, resulting from a case/control study
relative risk
a statement of the relationship between the risk of acquiring a disease when a specific risk factor is present and the risk of acquiring that same disease when the risk factor is absent