110 terms

L to J English 8

STUDY
PLAY
Synonym
Words that are the same or similar in meaning.
Antonym
Words that are opposite in meaning.
Compare/Contrast Organization
A pattern of organization for a paper that finds similarities and differences between two or more things.
Fact/Opinion Organization
A pattern of organization for a paper that separates the paper based on items that can be proven and other's that are a person's beliefs, feelings, or thoughts.
Cause/Effect Organization
A pattern of organization for a paper that helps the writer show the relationship be events and ideas and what results from them.
Simile
A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things using the words like or as.
Metaphor
A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things without using like or as.
Hyperbole
A figure of speech in which the truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humorous effect.
Onomatopoeia
A literary technique where the author uses words that imitate the sounds they are conveying.
Personification
A literary technique or figurative language where an author gives human qualities to an animal, object, or idea.
Alliteration
A literary technique that repeats the consonant sounds at the beginning of words in a sentence or phrase.
Idiom
An expression that has a meaning different from the meaning of its individual words.
Fiction
A piece of writing that tells a made up or imaginary story.
Nonfiction
A piece of writing that tells about real people, places, and events.
Inform
An author's purpose for writing that provides factual information often for the purpose of explaining an idea or teaching a purpose.
Setting
The literary element of a story, poem or play that gives the time and place of the action.
Plot
The literary element of a story, poem or play that is a series of the events, including the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution.
Theme
The literary element that is a message about life or human nature. Often times it is a lesson to be learned.
Mood
This is the feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader.
Tone
This is an expression of the author's attitude toward his or her subject.
Predicting
The reading strategy where the reader tries to figure out what will happen next and how the selection might end. Read on to see how accurate the guesses were.
Visualizing
The reading strategy where the reader pictures characters, events, and the setting to help better understand what is happening. Pay attention to the images that form in your mind as you read.
Connecting
The reading strategy where the reader relates personally with what is being read. Find similarities between the descriptions in the selection and what you have personally experienced, heard about, or read.
Questioning
The reading strategy where the reader takes a moment to ask about what they have read in a passage.
Clarifying
The reading strategy where the reader stops occasionally to review what they understand. Expect to have understanding change and develop as reading continues. Reread when necessary.
Evaluating
The strategy where the reader forms opinions about what has been read both while reading and once finished. Develop personal ideas about characters and events.
Narrator
The voice that tells the story. Sometimes that voice is a character in the story or an outside voice.
Prefix
A word part attached to the beginning of a word or root word to form a new word.
Suffix
A word part that appears at the end of a root or base word to form a new word.
Root
A word part that contains the core meaning of the word.
Introduction
The part of the paper that should capture the reader's attention with a hook, and often times includes a thesis statement or main idea and preview of the paper's body.
Body Paragraphs
The parts of the paper that elaborate on individual sections of the main idea. Together they help develop an idea or accomplish a purpose.
Conclusion
The part of the paper that leaves the reader with a strong final impression and sums up the ideas addressed.
Sensory Details
Words and phrases that appeal to the reader's senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
Characters
The people, animals, or imaginary creatures who take part in the action of a work of literature.
Main Character
The most important characters in literary works. Generally, the plot focuses on this person.
Short Story
A work of fiction that centers on a single idea and can be read in one sitting. Generally it has one main conflict and one main character.
Main Idea
The central or most important idea about a topic that a writer or speaker conveys. Often times it is expressed in a topic sentence or thesis statement and is supported by details.
Poetry
A type of literature in which words are carefully chosen and arranged to create certain effects. Authors use sound devices, imagery, and figurative language to express emotions and ideas.
Tall Tale
Humorously exaggerated story about impossible events, often involving the supernatural abilities of the main character.
Myth
A traditional story, usually concerning some superhuman being or unlikely event, which was once widely believed to be true. Traditionally connected to Romans and Greeks.
Legend
A story handed down from the past about a specific person, usually someone of heroic accomplishments. They usually have some basis in historical fact.
Folk Tale
A story that has been passed from generation to generation by word of mouth. The characters can be animal, human or superhuman beings, and are often associated with different regions.
Fable
A brief tale told to illustrate a moral or teach a lesson, which is typically stated at the end of the story. Often times the characters are animals.
Sequential Order
A pattern of organization that shows the order of steps or stages in a process.
Chronological Order
The arrangement of events by their order of occurrence in time.
Spatial Order
A pattern of organization in which details are presented as they are/were located in space.
Order of Importance
A pattern of organization in which details are arranged from most important to least important.
Assonance
A literary technique or figurative language that repeats vowel sounds within non-rhyming words.
Irony
This literary technique or figurative language is a special contrast between appearance and reality; usually what is stated or what happens is opposite of what is meant or actually happens.
Oxymoron
A form of figurative language in which the words or components are opposites of one another.
Cliche'
This literary technique or figurative language is an overused phrase, something you should traditionally avoid in your writing.
Imagery
This literary technique or figurative language consists of descriptive words and phrases that recreate sensory experiences for the reader.
Biography
A form of writing that is a true account of another person's life, written by another person.
Autobiography
A form of writing that is a true account of the author's own life.
First Person Perspective
A point of view where the narrator is a character in the story.
Second Person Perspective
A point of view where the narrator addresses the reader directly, attempts to pull them into what they are saying or doing.
Third Person Omniscient Perspective
a point of view in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the story
Third Person Limited Perspective
a point of view where the narrator only knows the thoughts and feelings of one character, and it is typically a main character.
Persuade
An author's purpose for writing that attempts to convince the reader to adopt a certain viewpoint.
Entertain
An author's purpose for writing that transports the reader to another place because of the emotional connections. The story may make you laugh, cry, become angry, or all of the above.
Exposition
This is the first part of the story and plot diagram. It provides important background information and introduces the setting and important characters.
Rising Action
This is the part of the plot diagram heading up to the climax. This stage of the plot develops the conflict or struggles.
Climax
This is the point of greatest interest in a story, play or book. It is usually located close to the end and the conflict becomes resolved.
Falling Action
This is the stage of the plot where the story begins to draw to a close. This portion of the plot shows results of actions or important decisions.
Resolution
This is the point of the plot where the final outcome of the story is worked out. Problems from earlier have been resolved.
Inference
A logical guess that is made based on facts and one's own knowledge and experience. In science we refer to it as a hypothesis.
Character vs. Character
A type of conflict that involves two or more characters either verbally, emotionally, or physically fighting one another.
Character vs, Self
A type of conflict that involves the main character and themselves. Usually the person needs to make a decision.
Character vs. Nature
A type of conflict that involves the main character fighting storms or other natural phenomenon.
Character vs. Society
A type of conflict that involves the main character fighting ideas and beliefs that are surrounding them socially. Examples might be racism or bullying.
Paraphrase
This is restating information in one's own words. The length isn't shorten.
Summarize
This is to briefly retell the main ideas of a piece of writing shortened and in one's own words.
Pre-write/Brainstorm
This step in the writing process occurs at the beginning. The writer begins to accumulate ideas traditionally in list form.
Graphic Organizer
This tool for writing is essentially a word picture. Take the brainstormed topic and elaborate with details which will possibly be used in the writing and organize them on a picture.
Rough Draft
The first version of a piece of writing. A writer's first chance to construct the content of their graphic organizer in paper form.
Topic Sentence
The sentence of a paragraph that states the paragraph's main idea. All other sentences in the paragraph provide supporting details. Is not research based.
Transitions
Words or phrases that show connections between details. They help show how ideas relate to one another.
Research
Questioning or investigating into a subject in order to discover facts or answer questions.
Thesis Statement
A statement that is the main proposition that a writer attempts to support through research in a piece of writing.
Works Cited
An alphabetical list of all the works a writer has referred to in his or her text.
Source
Anything that supplies information for a research project or paper.
Genre
A category in which a work of literature is classified.
Context Clues
Words or phrases surrounding a word that provide hints about the word's meaning.
Analogy
A comparison between two things that are alike in some way (this is not a simile or metaphor).
Foreshadowing
When a writer provides hints that suggest future events in a story.
Flashback
An interruption of the action to present events that took place at an earlier time.
Antagonist
A force or person working against the protagonist, main character, in a story, play or novel.
Protagonist
The main character in a story, play or novel. This person is fighting against the antagonist.
Minor Character
Less important characters in a literary work. Though the story is not centered around them, they help the plot move along.
Dynamic/Round Character
A person who undergoes important changes as a plot unfolds in literary work. Can be the same as the main character.
Static/Flat Character
A person who remains the same throughout a story.
Plagiarism
When a writer uses someone else's words or ideas without correctly formatting and crediting them.
Stanza
A group of two or more lines that form a unit in a poem.
Symbolism
A person, place, object or activity that stands for something beyond itself in a piece of literature.
Suspense
Feeling of growing tension and excitement felt by a reader.
Prior Knowledge
The information a reader already possesses about a topic prior to learning more in the lesson.
Ballad
A type of narrative poem that tells a story and was originally meant to be sung or recited.
Couplet
A pair of lines in poetry that sometimes rhyme and form their own stanza.
Meter/Foot/Rhythm
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poem.
Ode
A type of lyric poem that deals with serious themes and usually commemorates events or praises people.
Free Verse
Poetry that does not contain regular patterns of rhythm or rhyme.
Sonnet
A poem that has a formal structure, containing 14 lines and a specific rhyme scheme and meter. Think Shakespeare.
Science-Fiction
Fiction in which the writer explores unexpected possibilities of the past or the future.
Fantasy
Fiction that is highly imaginative and portrays events, settings, or characters that are unrealistic.
Historical-Fiction
Fiction that is set in the past and includes real places and real events of historical importance.
Realistic-Fiction
Fiction that is based in reality with characters that could easily be real but are not.
Drama/Play
a composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving conflict or contrast of character, especially one intended to be acted on the stage
Motive
the reason behind a character's actions
Identify
a reading strategy used for determining the author's purpose, finding the main ideas, the important details, and the overall theme of the text