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General cisco prep questions
Terms in this set (104)
First Octet Range
1 - 126
128 - 191
192 - 223
Valid Network Numbers
188.8.131.52 - 184.108.40.206
220.127.116.11 - 18.104.22.168
192.0.0.0 - 22.214.171.124
Class A - Number of Networks
2^7 - 2
Class B - Number of Networks
Class C - Number of Networks
Class A - Number of Hosts Per Network
2^24 - 2
Class B - Number of Hosts Per Network
2^16 - 2
Class C - Number of Hosts Per Network
2^8 - 2
Powers of 2
Transport layer protocols
Application layer protocols
HTTP, POP3, SMTP
Start, Control, end Conversations
Presentation layer protocols
ASCII, JPEG, Encryption,
Data link protocols
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), HDLC, Frame Relay, PPP
Physical Layer protocols
RJ45, 232, V.35
High-level Data Link Control
Application layer function
Interfaces between network and application software. Also authentication services
Presentation layer function
Defines the format and organization of data. Includes encryption
Session layer function
Establishes and maintains end to end bidirectional flows between endpoints. Includes managing transaction flows.
Transport layer function
Provides a variety of services between two host computers, including connection establishment and termination, flow control, error recover, and segmentation of large data blocks into smaller parts for transmission
Network layer function
Logical addressing, routing and path determination
Data link function
Formats data into frames appropriate for transmission onto some physical medium. Defines rules for when the medium can be used, defines means by which to recognize transmission errors.
Physical layer function
Defines the electrical, optical, cabling, connectors, and the procedural details required for transmitting bits, represented as some form of energy passing over a physical medium.
Data-Link Connection Identifier
1.544 Mbps (24 DS0s, plus 8 kbps overhead) T1
44.736 Mbps (28 DS1s, plus overhead) T3
2.048 Mbps (32 DS0s)
34.368 Mbps (16 E1s, plus overhead)
2.048 Mbps (32 DS0s; Japanese standard)
Leased line, leased circuit, link, serial link, point-to-point link, circuit... all commonly use to refer to a Point-to-point link
Private address range
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 One network
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 16 Networks
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 256 networks
Committed Information Rate
Frame Relay header and trailer are defined by a protocol called: Link Access Procedure - Frame (LAPF)
Frame Relay vs. Point-to-Point
the equipment at the telco actually examines the data frames sent by the router.
DNS UDP and TCP
Ports 16,384 - 32,767
RTP- based voice (VoIP) and Video UDP
Content Addressable Memory table
STP Blocking or forwarding
Process of forwarding out all interfaces (except the interface it came in on).
Store and Forward
The switch fully receives all the bits in the frame (storing) before forwarding the frame. So the switch can check the FCS before forwarding.
The switch forwards the frame as soon as it can. This reduces latency but does not allow the switch to discard frames that fail the FCS check.
The switch forwards the frame after receiving the first 64 bytes of the frame, thereby avoiding forwarding frames that were corrupted due to a collision.
deletes one character
Refresh the line
move back one word
moves forward one word
host range? 10.235.44.160 255.255.240.0
10.235.32.1 through to 10.235.47.254
How many each s? h? 172.24.0.0 255.255.254.0
128 subnets and 510 hosts
What is the last valid host on the subnetwork 10.93.80.0/20?
Interesting octet mistake
x.254 - last valid host....
multiples of 16
10 Mbps, Ethernet, 10BASE-T, Copper, 100 meters
100 Mbps, Fast Ethernet 100BASE-T, Copper, 100 meters
1000 Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet, 1000BASE-LX, Fiber, 5000meters
1000 Mbps, Gigabit Ethernet, 1000BASE-T, Copper, 100 meters
10 Gbps, Gig Ethernet, 10GBASE-T, Copper, 100 meters
Packet Internet Groper
Internet Control Message Protocol
5 Transport layer features
2. Error recovery
3. Flow control
4. Connection establishment and termination
5. Ordered data transfer
3 step process for design
1. N (network bits)
2. Smallest value for S
3. Smallest value for H
auto summarization steps
1. order them
2. note highest and lowest
3. pick shortest prefix and subtract 1
NOTE: increment doesn't matter, the subnets have to fall between. Also highest address is broadcast of highest network.
Setup SSH steps
1. login local (line config mode).
2 username (global config mode).
3. ip domain name (global config)
4. crypto key generate rsa (global config)
5. ip ssh version 2 (global config)
6. line vty 0 0 transport (line vty config mode)
Router and Switch out of the box
1. Erase Nvram (if necessary).
3. Cosmetics (hostname, work environment, logging, exec-timeout)
4. Management (ip address, ip default-gateway)
5. Interfaces (speed, duplex, descriptions)
6. Verify and backup.
3 History commands
show history \ history size x \ terminal history size x
protect, restrict, shutdown. discards offending traffic - all. Sends log and snmp. Disables......with err-disabled
1. Shutdown ports
2. Change them to access mode
3. Assign to an unused vlan
4. Change the native vlan to an unused vlan.
Administratively down/down "Status" disabled
down/down "Status" notconnect
Physical issues or device on other end is: off, shutdown, or error disabled.
up/down "Status" notconnect
umm ... doesn't happen on switches
down/down "Status" err-disabled
duplex mismatch. because the interfaces will still be in up/up and even possibly send traffic but extremely inefficient and problematic. This is because the half-duplex device will use csma/cd and misinterpret traffic as collisions.
1. If speed is not known by any means, half/10Mbps
2. assuming speed is successfully detected: 10 or 100 - half duplex.
3. over gig, full duplex
EIGRP (external) AD
BGP (internal) AD
Mode Button on Switch Status
1. Off (could be physical or administratively "shutdown")
2. Solid Green - working, no traffic.
3. Flashing Green - working and busy.
4. Flashing Amber - Port is blocked by spanning tree
Mode Button on Switch - Speed
1. Unlit = 10Mbps
2. Solid Green = 100Mbps
3. Flashing Green = 1000Mbps
Note, System LED Amber - call TAC (technical assistance center).
Routing protocols that support VLSM
ospf default route command
how to stop and restart ospf
clear ip ospf process
Assign an interface "passive"
ospf show commands
show ip ospf neighbor
show ip ospf database
show ip ospf interface
show ip route
ip nat inside source static inside-local inside-global
ip nat inside source list 25 pool staff_users
ip nat inside source list 25 interface serial0/1/0 overload
Hot Standby Router Protocol
Standby 1... ip (address), Priority, Tracking, Preempt...
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