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AP US History Period 3, 1754-1800
Terms in this set (86)
Seven Years' (French and Indian) War
fought between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France, as well as Native American allies
"No Taxation Without Representation."
a phrase, generally attributed to James Otis about 1761, that reflected the resentment of American colonists at being taxed by a British Parliament to which they elected no representatives and became an anti-British slogan before the American Revolution; in full, "Taxation without representation is tyranny.".
a philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority andlegitimacy, and came to advance ideals such as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional governmentand ending the perceived abuses of the church and state
One of the founding fathers, famous for presence in the American Enlightenment. earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies.
The Patriot Movement
Movement or push toward independence in the colonies. Those that supported colonial independence were referred to as "Patriots" while those that were loyal to the British crown were called "Loyalists."
Groups of able-bodied colonialist men without proper military training that banded together to revolt against British tyrannny.
The Continental Army
formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies, created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. Commanded by General George Washington (Commander-in-Chief)
General, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Later named the first President of the United States.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Published in 1776. Pamphlet that challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. Used "Common Sense" and plain language to appeal to the average colonist. First work to ask for independence outright.
The Declaration of Independence
the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting atPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule.
Predominant conception of women's roles before, during and after the American Revolution: the "Republican Mother" was considered a custodian of civic virtue responsible for upholding the morality of her husband and children. Though this idea emphasized the separation of women's and men's roles, it did weight heavily the influence of the mother on the family and advocated for this influence to be taken seriously.
The branch of government tasked with writing laws.
The branch of government tasked with interpreting laws.
The branch of government tasked with enforcing laws.
The Articles of Confederation
An agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution. Drafted by a committee appointed by the Second Continental Congress, ratified in late 1777. Later replaced by the Constitution of the United States of America.
took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States.
a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government.
Separation of Powers
Inspired by Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, the idea of a constitutional government with three separate branches of government. Each of the three branches would have defined abilities to check the powers of the other branches.
The Federalist Papers
a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
Founder of the Federalist Party, Co-author of The Federalist Papers, First Secretary of the Treasury
Co-Author of the Federalist Papers, hailed as "the Father of the Constitution," Fourth President of the United States
Bill of Rights
the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.
formed by Thomas Jefferson and others who believed in an agrarian-based, decentralized,democratic government. The party was established to oppose the Federalists who had supported and pushed through the ratification of the US Constitution.
one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. It is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics.
The Northwest Ordinance
created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North America and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south.established the precedent by which the Federal government would be sovereign and expand westward with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation.
a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond.
the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
The British response to the First Continental Congress in the American colonies. The Congress asked forrepresentation in Parliament in the Suffolk Resolves, also known as the first olive branch petition. Parliament claimed that their members had the well being of the colonists in mind.
Sacrificing one's self-interest for the public good.
Rebellion against political authority.
The economic theory that all parts of an economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state; hence, that colonial economics should be subordinated for the benefit of an empire.
To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money.
Taxes places on imported goods, often to raise prices and thus protect domestic producers.
To pledge property to a creditor as security for a loan or debt.
In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury.
The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote.
A pledge to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad.
A person of mixed African and European ancestry.
A customs tax on the export or import of goods.
A systematic program or particular materials designed to spread certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term implies the use of manipulative or deceptive means.
An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product.
An increase in the supply of currency relative to the goods available, leading to a decline in the purchasing power of money.
To leave official or military service without permission.
A professional soldier who serves in a foreign army for pay.
A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime.
A form of government characterized by absolute state power and the unlimited authority of the ruler.
A nation or person not taking sides in a war.
A citizen not in military service.
To seize private property for public use, often as a penalty.
A messenger or agent sent by a government on official business.
A mass of disorderly and crude common people.
Concerning the belief that a country should take little or no part in foreign affairs, especially through alliances or wars.
Passed down from generation to generation.
The isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops.
A private vessel temporarily authorized to capture or plunder enemy ships in wartime.
Taking advantage of one's official position to gain money or property by illegal means.
To separate an official state church from its connection with the government.
Setting free from servitude or slavery
an article of personal or movable property; hence a term applied to slaves, since they were considered the personal property of their owners.
favoring the end of slavery
The confirmation or validation of an act (such as the constitution) by authoritative approval.
Foreigners; also, persons resident in but not citizens of a country.
in America, a surveyed territory six miles square; the term also refers to a unit of social government, smaller than a country that is often based on these survey units.
In America, government an organized political entity not yet enjoying full equal terms of a state.
To make a smaller territory or political unit part of a larger one.
A demand for something issued on the basis of public authority.
Depriving someone of the right to redeem mortgaged property because the legal payments on the loan have not been kept up.
The minimum number of persons who must be present in a group before it can conduct valid business.
The theory that formal government is unnecessary and wrong in principle; the term is also used generally for lawlessness or anti-governmental disorder.
Referring to a legislative body with two houses
Referring to a legislative body with one house
An official count of population; in the United States, the federal census occurs every ten years.
The debt of a government or nation to individual creditors, also called the national debt.
The body of official advisers to the head of a government; in the United States, it consists of the heads of the major executive departments.
A court that hears cases in several designated locations rather than a single place.
Concerning public finances-expenditures and revenues.
The appropriation or taking on of obligations not originally one's own.
A tax on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain products.
The shares of capital ownership gained from investing in a corporate enterprise; the term also refers to the certificates representing such shares.
medium of exchange
Any item, paper or otherwise, used as money. Also referred to as "unit of exchange."
Arbitrary or tyrannical rule.
To force people or property into public service without choice.
The merging of diverse cultures or peoples into one.
An investigation carried on with much publicity, supposedly to uncover dangerous activity but actually intended to weaken the political opposition.
An agreement or covenant between states to perform some legal act.
In American politics, the assertion that a state may legally invalidate a federal act deemed inconsistent with its rights or sovereignty.
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