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333 terms

human developement lifespan Kail/Cavanaugh 5th edition

Chapter 3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10 Multiple choice and true and false. Test chapter 4 and 5 terms
STUDY
PLAY
Chapter 3-
Chapter 3
Winchester notices that every time he touches his newborn son's cheek, the infant turns his head and appears to try and suck. This behavior exemplifies a ________ reflex.
rooting
Experts define a mad cry as a:
more intense version of a basic cry.
Why are African American babies twice as likely to die from SIDS?
They were more likely to be put to bed on their stomachs.
Which person is most likely experiencing the most rapid physical growth?
Jose, who is 18 months old.
5
Malnutrition seems to be most damaging if it occurs during:
infancy.
Each neuron contains many ________ but only one ________.
dendrites; cell body
Which is least associated with the frontal cortex?
vision
8
Whose brain is most likely to have the most synapses?
Elaine, who is one year old.
To locomote is to:
move.
Caleb is 4 months old. If he is like others his age, when he grasps a rattle, he will grasp it with:
his fingers only.
Nathan suddenly lets out a high-pitched cry, lowers his eyebrows, and purses his lips. You would be safest in assuming that Nathan is:
experiencing pain.
Which innate preference is used to help researchers assess infants' visual abilities?
A preference for striped objects over plain objects.
What infant response did Gibson and Walk (1960) measure in their visual cliff research?
heart rate
The image of a person is identical on the retinas of a child, whereas the image of a dog is much different on the left retina than it is on the right. This means that the child will perceive:
the dog to be closer than the person.
The fact that 6-month-olds will look for long periods of time at toys they previously had only been able to touch suggests that infants:
are able to integrate visual and tactile information.
Chapter 3 true or false
Chapter 3 true or false
Reflexes are learned responses.
false
Waking activity means that a baby is awake, calm, and attentive.
false
Infant crying is typically accompanied by agitated and uncoordinated movement.
true
REM sleep becomes significantly more common between birth and age 2 years.
false
Encouraging parents to have newborns sleep on their backs lead to a significant reduction in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome.
true
A child with high effortful control is able to maintain focus and is less distractible.
true
Body size is the key determinate of malnutrition in infancy.
true
Less than 1% of American children do not have adequate food.
false
Neurotransmitters are released by the terminal buttons.
true
The neural plate develops into the brain and spinal cord.
true
Synaptic pruning significantly increases the number of neural connections in the brain.
false
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tracks blood flow in the brain.
true
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tracks blood flow in the brain.
false
Handedness is unaffected by culture.
false
Of all the senses, the sense of smell is probably the least developed in infants.
false
Visual expansion is a form of depth perception based on the retinal size of an image.
true
Chapter 4
Chapter 4
Salvador has a scheme for drawing with a crayon that had to be changed in order to learn how to paint a picture with a brush. This adaptation is an example of:
accommodation.
Dr. Eco has a strong belief that global warming is a theoretical myth. In recent years, however, the increased rate of polar ice cap melt has forced him to alter his theory, and he is now a strong advocate against greenhouse pollutants. A Piagetian would most likely describe Dr. Eco's theoretical conversion in terms of:
equilibration.
Six-month-old Teddy is playing with his favorite toy, a stuffed bear. Suddenly a blanket falls off the shelf and covers his bear. According to Piaget, Teddy would most likely:
neither reach nor search for the bear.
When Andy bumps into a table, he says to it, "You bumped into me because you're mean." Andy is exhibiting:
animism.
Seven-month-old LeBron appears to possess a sense of "naive physics." Which of LeBron's actions would indicate that he does possess this sense?
His surprise when a basketball appears to be hanging in mid air when it is not attached to a string or other supporting device.
6
Which statement best exemplifies the concept of essentialism?
"Fish have a special 'fishness' that allows them to breathe underwater."
Which is the best example of a question designed to assess autobiographical memory?
Who taught you how to ride a bike?
What can be done to improve the credibility of the testimony of a child?
Use questions that test a number of different explanations concerning the event.
When asked to count the 4 beer bottles placed in from of him, 3-year-old Bud says, "1, 3, 4, there are 4!" When asked to count the bottles a second time, he says, "2, 5, 7, 4, there are 4!" Bud's counting skills demonstrate that he is capable of demonstrating the ________ principle of counting.
cardinality
Dr. Gunga is attempting to determine the zone of proximal development for Dinn when Dinn works on complex mazes. In order to do so, Dr. Gunga must measure Dinn's personal performance on the maze and:
Dinn's maze performance when assisted by a skilled helper.
Which is the best example of a phoneme?
The consonant sound "d."
When six-month-old Gabby says "tahtahtah," she is:
babbling.
The processes in which children acquire new words to referents at such a speed that they cannot be considering all meanings for the new word is called:
fast mapping.
14
Two year-old Sam's limited vocabulary consists of words like "book," "dog," and "hat." Apparently, Sam:
has a referential style.
Which statement by a 17-month-old best represents telegraphic speech?
"Go store"
When discussing the acquisition of grammar, which type of theorist would be most likely to say, "Context and genetics are overrated, what really matters is imitation and reinforcement?"
a behaviorist
During accommodation a new experience is incorporated into an existing scheme without modification.
correct: false
2
The sensorimotor period of thinking last from about age 2 to age 6 years old.
correct: false
3
Object permanence involves understanding that something exists even when it is out of our sensory awareness (e.g., cannot be currently be seen).
correct: true
4
Piaget is often criticized for overestimating the impact of sociocultural factor on cognitive development.
False
5
The core knowledge hypothesis is very compatible with notions of naive physics and naive biology.
correct: true

6
A commitment to a teleological explanation means believing that all living things exist for a purpose.
correct: true
7
Research by Rovee-Collier showed that, by 2 months of age, infants can recall past events.

correct: true

8
The quality of an autobiographical memory can be influenced by culture.
correct: true
9
A good way to improve the eyewitness testimony of children is to warn them that an interviewer may sometimes try to trick them.
correct: true
10
Private speech is a form of verbal communication a child uses when talking to their best friend.
correct: false
11
The unique sounds that can be jointed to create words are called phonemes.
correct: true
12
Newborns appear to have the ability to hear the entire range of phonemes for every language on Earth.
correct: true
13
Phonological memory is defined as the ability to recall a visual image after the passage of time.
correct: false
14
An expressive style vocabulary consists of many names for people, objects, and actions.
correct: false

15
In English, "ing" and "ed" represent grammatical morphemes.
correct: true
During accommodation a new experience is incorporated into an existing scheme without modification.
correct: false
2
The sensorimotor period of thinking last from about age 2 to age 6 years old.
correct: false
3
Object permanence involves understanding that something exists even when it is out of our sensory awareness (e.g., cannot be currently be seen).
correct: true

4
Piaget is often criticized for overestimating the impact of sociocultural factor on cognitive development.

correct: false

5
The core knowledge hypothesis is very compatible with notions of naive physics and naive biology.

correct: true

6
A commitment to a teleological explanation means believing that all living things exist for a purpose.

correct: true

7
Research by Rovee-Collier showed that, by 2 months of age, infants can recall past events.

correct: true
8
The quality of an autobiographical memory can be influenced by culture.
correct: true

9
A good way to improve the eyewitness testimony of children is to warn them that an interviewer may sometimes try to trick them.
correct: true
10
Private speech is a form of verbal communication a child uses when talking to their best friend.
correct: false

11
The unique sounds that can be jointed to create words are called phonemes.
correct: true
12
Newborns appear to have the ability to hear the entire range of phonemes for every language on Earth.
correct: true
13
Phonological memory is defined as the ability to recall a visual image after the passage of time.
correct: false

14
An expressive style vocabulary consists of many names for people, objects, and actions.
correct: false
15
In English, "ing" and "ed" represent grammatical morphemes.
correct: true
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Carmela is struggling in the "autonomy versus guilt and shame" stage of psychosocial development. What aspect of her psychosocial development will result from her successful resolution of this conflict?
will
Although Jamie has an enormous amount of initiative, he does not possess "purpose." According to Erikson, this is probably because Jamie:
has not learned to cooperate with others.
Dr. Ginesberg's lecture on attachment concludes that babies express behavior that makes it more likely they will form attachments to adults because, in the past, infants that expressed these behaviors were the infants that survived. Dr. Ginesberg is presenting a(n) ________ approach to attachment.
evolutionary
Which normally maturing infant would be most likely to have just formed their first true attachment?
Hobbs, who is eight months old.
When Faith's mother leaves her alone in a room, she does not move and appears a bit dazed. Faith is most likely exhibiting a(n) ________ attachment.
disorganized
The fact that infant Ricardo has come to expect that his mother is not available when he needs her means that Ricardo has developed:
an internal working model.
7
Which statement is true regarding basic emotions?
They are experienced by people in all cultures.
Complex emotions differ from basic emotions in that complex emotions require some understanding of:
self.
Stan is playing with his ball, and Olly is playing with his doll, but they are each watching what the other is doing. Stan and Olly are most likely involved in:
parallel play.
While the typical 1 1/2-year-old spends the majority of time engaged in ________ play, the typical 4-year-old spends most of their time in ________ play.
parallel; cooperative
Which term does not fit with the notion of "constricting" during play?
support
Basic acts of altruistic behavior first appear around ________ months of age.
18
One of the most effective ways for Dottie to get her child to engage in altruistic behavior is for Dottie to:
model the behavior herself.
In general, boys are ________ than girls.
better at spatial tasks
As a typical American father, Hans would be most upset if his son Franz:
wanted to play "house."
When three-year-old Juan, who is male, says "I'm going to grow up to be a mommy," he is failing to demonstrate:
gender stability.
Chapter 5 T or F
Chapter 5 T or F
Erikson suggested that a proper balance between trust and mistrust can result in the acquisition of hope.

true

2
According to Erikson's theory, purpose is usually achieved before will.

false

3
Infants rarely become attached to their fathers.
false

4
Babies who exhibit avoidant attachment are not upset when their mothers leave the room.

true

5
Disorganized attachments are characterized infant confusion when mom leaves and when she returns.

true

6
Internal working models involve expectations about parental responsiveness.

true

7
Pain is considered one of the basic emotions.

false

8
Children do not experience complex emotions until they are about 18 months old.

true

9
The expression of anger does not appear to vary by culture.
false

10
During parallel play a child plays alone.

true

11
Preschoolers with imaginary friends tend to be less sociable that other preschoolers.

false

12
Constricting play often involves threats.
true

13
When you experience the feelings of another person you are experiencing empathy.
true

14
Some gender stereotypes are false beliefs.
true

15
The understanding that you are a boy or a girl occurs during gender labeling.
true
Erikson suggested that a proper balance between trust and mistrust can result in the acquisition of hope.
true

2
According to Erikson's theory, purpose is usually achieved before will.

false

3
Infants rarely become attached to their fathers.

correct: false

4
Babies who exhibit avoidant attachment are not upset when their mothers leave the room.

true

5
Disorganized attachments are characterized infant confusion when mom leaves and when she returns.


true
your answer:
6
Internal working models involve expectations about parental responsiveness.

True
7
Pain is considered one of the basic emotions.
false

8
Children do not experience complex emotions until they are about 18 months old.
true

9
The expression of anger does not appear to vary by culture.
false

10
During parallel play a child plays alone.
true

11
Preschoolers with imaginary friends tend to be less sociable that other preschoolers.
false

12
Constricting play often involves threats.
true

13
When you experience the feelings of another person you are experiencing empathy.
true

14
Some gender stereotypes are false beliefs.

true

15
The understanding that you are a boy or a girl occurs during gender labeling.
true
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Which reflects a basic ability available only to a formal operational thinker?
"Hypothetically speaking ..."
2
Angelica and her younger brother Houston are both given 3 fountain pens, each containing clear ink, and informed that some combination of ink will yield a color. Because Angelica is a formal operational thinker and Houston is a concrete operational thinker, how will their behavior likely differ?
Angelica will spend more time thinking about the task and be more systematic when attempting to solve it.
Working memory is best described as being:
temporary and limited in capacity.
Bea has tremendous insight into "deep" questions like, "Why are we born to die?" According to Gardner, Bea would rate high on a scale of ________ intelligence.
existential
Tarzan is building a cage for his pet monkey when his hammer breaks. The fact that Tarzan is able to realize that he might be able to use a frozen banana as a substitute for a hammer indicates that he has a high level of ________ ability.
creative
6
In recent years the definition of "gifted" has:
broadened to include areas like dance and music.
Who would most likely do the best job of playing a game in which the goal was to list as many novel ways to use a banana as possible?
Dole, who is a very good divergent thinker.
In the Brouno and colleagues (2007) study on reading disabilities, ________ served as the independent variable.
the amount of word presented
If you lacked phonological awareness, you would have great difficulty in:
hearing the difference between the words "putt" and "butt."
0
Which behavior indicates that Mandy is using a knowledge-transforming strategy when writing her psychology term paper?
When, before she writes anything, she decides that the point of the paper would be to make her psychology teacher mad.
Which task would an average elementary-age girl perform better than an average elementary-age boy?
Writing her name in cursive.
Chapter 6 True or False
Chapter 6 True or False
When engaging in deductive reasoning you are drawing conclusions from facts.
true

2
When engaging in elaboration, you embellish on information in order to make it more memorable.
true

3
Goal identification and effective strategy selection are examples of cognitive self-regulation.
true

4
Analytic ability involves the ability to know that a plan will work.
false

5
Terman originally calculated IQ using the formal: IQ = CA/MA * 100.
false

6
Dynamic testing measures potential.
true

7
Most mentally retarded individuals fall in the "profound" category of retardation.

false

8
By definition, a child with a learning disability must have some kind of sensory impairment.
false

9
The three key symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention.
true

10
Reading comprehension occurs when an individual extracts meaning from a sequence of words.
true

11
Readers often use sentence context to help increase the speed of word recognition.
true

12
On standardized tests of math and science, the very best American students tend to score at the level of an average student from Asian countries like Korea.

true

13
Japanese parents are more likely than American parents to believe that genetic factors determine mathematical ability.

14
Good teachers value tutoring, emphasize mastery of topics, and effectively manage their classrooms.
true

15
Studies have linked participation in sports with antisocial and delinquent behavior. true
When engaging in deductive reasoning you are drawing conclusions from facts.
true

2
When engaging in elaboration, you embellish on information in order to make it more memorable.
true

3
Goal identification and effective strategy selection are examples of cognitive self-regulation.
true

4
Analytic ability involves the ability to know that a plan will work.
false

5
Terman originally calculated IQ using the formal: IQ = CA/MA * 100.
false

6
Dynamic testing measures potential.
true

7
Most mentally retarded individuals fall in the "profound" category of retardation.false

8
By definition, a child with a learning disability must have some kind of sensory impairment.

false

9
The three key symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention.
true

10
Reading comprehension occurs when an individual extracts meaning from a sequence of words.
true

11
Readers often use sentence context to help increase the speed of word recognition.
: true

12
On standardized tests of math and science, the very best American students tend to score at the level of an average student from Asian countries like Korea.
true

13
Japanese parents are more likely than American parents to believe that genetic factors determine mathematical ability.
true

14
Good teachers value tutoring, emphasize mastery of topics, and effectively manage their classrooms.

true

15
Studies have linked participation in sports with antisocial and delinquent behavior.
true
Chapter 7
Chapter 7
When Ki-Jana asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best describes Ki-Jana's parents?
authoritative
2
Because they have an permissive parenting style, you would predict that Al and Sue's son would:
have limited self-control.
Fugi watches her older sister getting yelled at after she throws an apple across the kitchen. Fugi is now less likely to throw an apple across the kitchen herself. This kind of learning through observation would be best described as:
time-out.
If you're going to use time-out, make sure that:
you explain the reasons for the time-out to the child after the time-out period is over.
Which advice should you give to parents who are trying to reduce their children's sibling conflict?
. "Try to keep your marital problems to yourself."
6
Which statement concerning divorce is true?
The reduction of income in the post-divorce single parent family can have a negative impact on development.
Which best exemplifies a "blended family?"
A family in which a divorced mom with a son marries a widowed dad with 2 daughters.
Five-year-old Badia's parents are not taking care of his medical needs. Badia is suffering from:
neglect.
Who is most likely to be abusing his child?
Joe, who is socially isolated from friends and relatives.
The statement, "we share our feelings" is most likely to be made by a:
15-year-old.
Jane is identified by others at school as being part of "The Elite," a fairly large group of students who are very popular, get good grades, and are involved in extra curricular activities. "The Elite" are best described as a:
crowd.
There is a group in town made up of girls who like golf. The leader of the group is most likely to be:
Annika, who is the best golfer in the group.
Mabel likes to hit other children for no other purpose than to see them get hurt and feel scared. What term best describes Mabel's behavior?
hostile aggression
Hiroko watches shows that display and encourage being friendly and helpful to other people. After watching this, Hiroko is more likely to:
act friendly.
Helen is upset because she thinks that her friend Troy views her other friend Mary as being more responsible than herself. According to Selman, Helen is most likely in the ________ stage of perspective taking.
third-person
Chapter 7 true or false
Chapter 7 true or false
Authoritarian parents usually produce the most well-adjusted children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Parenting styles vary both across cultures and with cultures.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
3
Direct instruction involves telling a child when, what, and why they should do something.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
A child's temperament can impact the type of parenting style exhibited by their parent.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
5
First-born children score higher on intelligence tests than later-born children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
6
Divorce is more difficult for adolescent children than for preschool children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
7
Child abuse is more prevalent in the United States than in countries that do not condone physically punishing children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
Poverty is a risk-factor for child maltreatment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
9
Having a positive maternal representation appears to do little to lessen the impact of childhood maltreatment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
10
Children whose friends are all members of the opposite sex are more likely to be well adjusted than children whose friends are all members of the same sex.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
11
Peer pressure is never positive.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
12
Controversial children are well liked by some of their classmates.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
Educational television programs have virtually no discernable impact on cognitive development in children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
14
Children who watch a lot of television have shorter attention spans than children who do not watch television.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
15
In Selman's initial stage of perspective-taking, children appear unable to understand why someone would want to do something different that they want to do.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
16
Members of high status groups are more likely to be prejudiced.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
Authoritarian parents usually produce the most well-adjusted children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Parenting styles vary both across cultures and with cultures.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
3
Direct instruction involves telling a child when, what, and why they should do something.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
A child's temperament can impact the type of parenting style exhibited by their parent.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
5
First-born children score higher on intelligence tests than later-born children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
6
Divorce is more difficult for adolescent children than for preschool children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
7
Child abuse is more prevalent in the United States than in countries that do not condone physically punishing children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
Poverty is a risk-factor for child maltreatment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
9
Having a positive maternal representation appears to do little to lessen the impact of childhood maltreatment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
10
Children whose friends are all members of the opposite sex are more likely to be well adjusted than children whose friends are all members of the same sex.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
11
Peer pressure is never positive.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
12
Controversial children are well liked by some of their classmates.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
Educational television programs have virtually no discernable impact on cognitive development in children.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
14
Children who watch a lot of television have shorter attention spans than children who do not watch television.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
15
In Selman's initial stage of perspective-taking, children appear unable to understand why someone would want to do something different that they want to do.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
16
Members of high status groups are more likely to be prejudiced.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
Chapter 8
chapter 8
Who is experiencing an event that is best defined as a change in their primary sex characteristics?
Paul, who has begun to produce sperm.
Menarche is to spermarche as:
onset of menstruation is to ejaculation.
3
Estrogen is directly released by the:
ovaries.
The negative effects associated with being an early-maturing female have been found to be offset by:
having supportive parents.
Which measure would be used to determine where a child is overweight?
BMI
Which is a defining characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
An irrational fear of being overweight
How many of the following are risk factors for teenagers developing either bulimia or anorexia: history of being a picky eater, negative self-image, history of dieting, frequently watching television shows with fat characters?
3
Based on statistics, which of the following 16-year-olds is most likely to die as the result of natural causes?
Mae, who is an African American female.
The illusion of invulnerability is best defined by the phrase:
"dangerous but fun."
During an ad hominem argument you must:
attack the person with whom you are arguing.
What basic moral question underlies the Heinz dilemma?
Can stealing be justified?
When considering the Heinz dilemma, Barney says that he would steal the drug because then his wife might bake him a cake to repay him for saving her. This thinking indicates that Barney is most likely in Kohlberg's ________ stage of moral development.
second
When Nicholas and Cage are debating whether or not to steal a cool car they just found, Nicholas says, "It's wrong to steal the car because there are laws against stealing, and no one is above the law." This type of thinking best fits with Kohlberg's ________ level of moral thinking.
conventional
Which comment concerning shoplifting best reflects postconventional thinking?
"Shoplifting is good only if you believe that we all have the right to have anything that we want."
Groups of Hindu adults and children from India and non-Hindu adults and children from the United States are read a dilemma in which a person is forced to choose between breaking the law to help out a friend or not breaking the law but disappointing the friend. What results would you expect?
Those from India chose to break the law.
Whose behavior would indicate that they are in Gilligan's second stage of moral reasoning?
Jen, who is caring for her infant daughter.
Chapter 8 true or false
Chapter 8 true or false
Sexual maturation changes that directly impact reproduction are referred to as secondary sex characteristics.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Spermarche is defined as the initial production of sperm.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
3
The pituitary gland regulates puberty changes by signaling other glands to release hormones.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
The moodiness often seen in teenagers is best explained in terms of "raging hormones."
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
5
Early maturation tends to have very negative effects for males.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
6
Body mass index is based on both weight and height.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
7
Overprotective parenting has been associated with the onset of anorexia but not bulimia.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
The amount of exercise done by the typical teenager tends to decline between ninth and twelfth grade.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
9
In the United States, most teenage girls die in motor vehicle accidents or by natural causes.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
10
Most teenagers achieve adult-like levels of processing speed during adolescence.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
11
Increases in content knowledge during adolescence results in advances in the ability to identify strategies appropriate for solving specific tasks.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
12
Adolescents tend to rely less on heuristics and more on analytical problem-solving.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
In Kohlberg's model, stage 3 moral reasoning involves universal ethical principles.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
14
In the Hindu religion, a great emphasis is placed on responsibility to others.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
15
Gilligan's model of moral development emphasizes care.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
Sexual maturation changes that directly impact reproduction are referred to as secondary sex characteristics.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Spermarche is defined as the initial production of sperm.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
3
The pituitary gland regulates puberty changes by signaling other glands to release hormones.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
The moodiness often seen in teenagers is best explained in terms of "raging hormones."
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
5
Early maturation tends to have very negative effects for males.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
6
Body mass index is based on both weight and height.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
7
Overprotective parenting has been associated with the onset of anorexia but not bulimia.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
The amount of exercise done by the typical teenager tends to decline between ninth and twelfth grade.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
9
In the United States, most teenage girls die in motor vehicle accidents or by natural causes.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
10
Most teenagers achieve adult-like levels of processing speed during adolescence.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
11
Increases in content knowledge during adolescence results in advances in the ability to identify strategies appropriate for solving specific tasks.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
12
Adolescents tend to rely less on heuristics and more on analytical problem-solving.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
In Kohlberg's model, stage 3 moral reasoning involves universal ethical principles.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
14
In the Hindu religion, a great emphasis is placed on responsibility to others.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
15
Gilligan's model of moral development emphasizes care.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Research has indicated that identity achievement status:
varies by concept (e.g., political affiliation, career choice).
The third phase of ethnic identity achievement involves:
creating a distinct ethnic self-concept.
Which statement concerning ethnic identity development is true?
Ethnic identity may change as new generations acculturate to the mainstream culture.
Which adolescent would likely have the highest level of self-esteem?
. Cheyenne, who is African American.
Which of these STDs is caused by bacteria?
gonorrhea
When asked why she became pregnant, 15-year-old Tanya says, "I did it on purpose so that I could be a loving adult mom." According to the model in the text, this rationale best fits with the ________ reason for not using contraceptives.
lack of motivation
Sid and Nancy are out on their fifth date. Which factor is least likely to increase the possibility of an acquaintance rape occurring?
Nancy struggles with Sid when he makes unwanted advances.
Which statement best describes the basic premise of Super's implementation phase of career development?
"I'll take the job and see what happens."
Zeke enjoys expressing himself on unstructured tasks. This description indicates that Zeke most likely has a(n) ________ personality type.
artistic
Sixteen-year-old B.K.'s parents are happy when she tells them she's decided to take on a part-time job working 20-30 hours a week at a fast-food restaurant. Based on the research presented in your text, should these parents be happy?
No, as this behavior is associated with an increased risk for drug use.
Which of the following 15-year-olds is least likely to drink alcohol?
Barbara, whose parents sometimes drink small amounts with meals.
The most effective non-drug interventions for teenage depression focus on:
teaching social skills.
Chapter 9 true or false
Chapter 9 true or false
During the diffusion phase of identity status, a person's identity is determined by adults rather than by personal exploration.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by a lack of self-absorption.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
3
Personal fables are based on seeing one's self as unique.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
Self-esteem levels tend to vary by domain (e.g., social, academic).
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
5
A child's self-esteem is influenced by how they are viewed by their parents.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
6
The "storm and stress" analogy accurately reflects the experience of most teenagers.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
7
Ignorance of the facts of contraception and lack of access to contraceptives both contribute to high teenage pregnancy rates in the United States.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
Same-sex attraction tends to be less understood in males than in females.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
9
Date rape involves the use of force.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
10
During the specification phase of vocation choice, a person takes a job and gains hands-on information about the career.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
11
Holland's theory focuses on the important connection between personality, career selection, and career fulfillment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
12
Investigative personality types enjoy thinking about abstract relationships.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
Parents who drink socially are more likely to have children who drink as teens.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
14
The neurotransmitter serotonin regulates brain centers linked to experiencing pleasure.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
15
Suicide is the leading cause of death in American teens.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
During the diffusion phase of identity status, a person's identity is determined by adults rather than by personal exploration.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
2
Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by a lack of self-absorption.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
3
Personal fables are based on seeing one's self as unique.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
4
Self-esteem levels tend to vary by domain (e.g., social, academic).
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
5
A child's self-esteem is influenced by how they are viewed by their parents.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
6
The "storm and stress" analogy accurately reflects the experience of most teenagers.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
7
Ignorance of the facts of contraception and lack of access to contraceptives both contribute to high teenage pregnancy rates in the United States.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
8
Same-sex attraction tends to be less understood in males than in females.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
9
Date rape involves the use of force.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
10
During the specification phase of vocation choice, a person takes a job and gains hands-on information about the career.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
your answer:
11
Holland's theory focuses on the important connection between personality, career selection, and career fulfillment.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
12
Investigative personality types enjoy thinking about abstract relationships.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
13
Parents who drink socially are more likely to have children who drink as teens.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
14
The neurotransmitter serotonin regulates brain centers linked to experiencing pleasure.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: true
your answer:
15
Suicide is the leading cause of death in American teens.
True
False
status: not answered ()
correct: false
Yacef suddenly finds himself newly married and out of school with a new job. Yacef is experiencing:
role transitions.
Who would Erikson say is most capable of true intimacy?
Aileen, who has a clear sense of identity.
Which of Brittney's actions best exemplifies an attempt to move beyond "thresholder" status?
Her two marriages.
People who quit smoking after smoking for a long time:
show significant improvements in their health.
Jari is a frequent binge drinker. Which is he less likely to experience than his non-binge drinking peers?
good grades
6
Who is at the greatest risk of a heart attack?
Forrest, who has high levels of LDLs and low levels of HDLs.
A doctor is attempting to determine how healthy you are. She uses a formula that contains information regarding your height and weight. What is she most likely measuring?
BMI
Kali has a theory of intelligence that views intelligence as being a combination of several factors such as fine motor skills, cognitive ability, and emotional control. Kali's theory is:
multidimensional.
After taking several college courses, Chuck's short-term memory ability increased. This exemplifies the concept of:
plasticity.
Which is not a factor identified by Schaie (1994) as a variable that helps reduce the risk of cognitive decline in old age?
Being single.
Someone who knows the answers to all the questions on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire would be exhibiting:
crystallized intelligence.
Ralphie believes that following school rules is important because a teacher's authority should not be questioned. Ralphie would probably be closest to the ________ stage of reflective judgment.
initial
Stereotypes:
help us process information in social situations.
Which best reflects a "social clock?"
Donald wants to be a millionaire by age 30.
Merlin believes that he can get what he wants if he tries hard enough. This indicates that he has ________ sense of personal control.
a high
Chapter 10 true or false
Chapter 10 true or false
The ADA prohibits discrimination based on age, sex, and race.
false

2
Erikson saw young adulthood as involving the psychosocial conflict between generativity and stagnation.

false

3
The "quarterlife crisis" involves challenges faced by individuals in their 20s.
true

4
Lung, mouth, bladder, and cervix cancer are all linked to smoking.
true

5
Moderate drinkers (e.g., one-two glasses of beer or wine a day for men) have higher risks for cardiovascular disease than abstainers and heavy drinkers.
false

6
Limiting access to alcohol appears to be the most effective means of reducing the incidence of binge drinking in college students.
false

7
Poverty and racism are key reasons for the poor health conditions found in inner-city neighborhoods.
true

8
The fact that your abilities can be altered with experience underlies the concept of plasticity.
true

9
Secondary mental abilities subsume primary mental abilities.
true

10
Most children use reflective judgment when reasoning out real-life dilemmas.
false

11
Skill acquisition tends to occur in a gradual manner.
false

12
The use of strong stereotypes can be automatic and unconscious.
true

13
According to McAdams, a life story help organize the past events in a person's life into a coherent sequence.
true

14
Possible selves become more numerous and varied the older a person gets.
false

15
An individual with a high sense of personal control believes that their actions are controlled by environmental forces.
false
The ADA prohibits discrimination based on age, sex, and race.

false

2
Erikson saw young adulthood as involving the psychosocial conflict between generativity and stagnation.
false

3
The "quarterlife crisis" involves challenges faced by individuals in their 20s.
true

4
Lung, mouth, bladder, and cervix cancer are all linked to smoking.
true

5
Moderate drinkers (e.g., one-two glasses of beer or wine a day for men) have higher risks for cardiovascular disease than abstainers and heavy drinkers.
false

6
Limiting access to alcohol appears to be the most effective means of reducing the incidence of binge drinking in college students.
false

7
Poverty and racism are key reasons for the poor health conditions found in inner-city neighborhoods.
true

8
The fact that your abilities can be altered with experience underlies the concept of plasticity.true

9
Secondary mental abilities subsume primary mental abilities.
true

10
Most children use reflective judgment when reasoning out real-life dilemmas.

false

11
Skill acquisition tends to occur in a gradual manner.
false

12
The use of strong stereotypes can be automatic and unconscious.
true

13
According to McAdams, a life story help organize the past events in a person's life into a coherent sequence.

14
Possible selves become more numerous and varied the older a person gets.
false

15
An individual with a high sense of personal control believes that their actions are controlled by environmental forces.
false
Chapter 5 terms
Chapter 5 terms
altruism
prosocial behavior such as helping and sharing in which the individual does not benefit directly from his or her behavior
attachment
enduring socioemotional relationship between infants and their caregivers
avoidant attachment
relationship in which infants turn away from their mothers when they are reunited following a brief separation
basic emotions
emotions experienced by humankind and that consist of three elements: a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and an overt behavior
constricting actions
interaction in which one partner tries to emerge as the victor by threatening or contradicting the other
cooperative play
play that is organized around a theme, with each child taking on a different role; begins at about 2 years of age
disorganized (disoriented) attachment
relationship in which infants don't seem to understand what's happening when they are separated and later reunited with their mothers
empathy
experiencing another person's feelings
enabling actions
individuals' actions and remarks that tend to support others and sustain the interaction
evolutionary psychology
theoretical view that many human behaviors represent successful adaptations to the environment
gender constancy
understanding that maleness and femaleness do not change over situations or personal wishes
gender identity
sense of oneself as male or female
gender labeling
young children's understanding that they are either boys or girls and naming themselves accordingly
gender stability
understanding in preschool children that boys become men and girls become women
gender stereotypes
beliefs and images about males and females that are not necessarily true
gender-schema theory
theory that states that children want to learn more about an activity only after first deciding whether it is masculine or feminine
hope
according to Erikson, an openness to new experience tempered by wariness that occurs when trust and mistrust are in balance
internal working model
infant's understanding of how responsive and dependable the mother is; thought to influence close relationships throughout the child's life
parallel play
when children play alone but are aware of and interested in what another child is doing
prosocial behavior
any behavior that benefits another person
purpose
according to Erikson, balance between individual initiative and the willingness to cooperate with others
relational aggression
aggression used to hurt others by undermining their social relationships
resistant attachment
relationship in which, after a brief separation, infants want to be held but are difficult to console
secure attachment
relationship in which infants have come to trust and depend on their mothers
simple social play
play that begins at about 15 to 18 months; toddlers engage in similar activities as well as talk and smile at each other
social referencing
behavior in which infants in unfamiliar or ambiguous environments look at an adult for cues to help them interpret the situation
social role
set of cultural guidelines about how one should behave, especially with other people
social smiles
smile that infants produce when they see a human face
stranger wariness
first distinct signs of fear that emerge around 6 months of age when infants become wary in the presence of unfamiliar adults
will
according to Erikson, a young child's understanding that he or she can act on the world intentionally; this occurs when autonomy, shame, and doubt are in balance
Chapter 5 Erikson's Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
Chapter 5 Erikson's Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
Each of 8 stages involves a unique challenge
Successful resolution results in a particular strength of psychosocial development
Failure may stunt development, the relevant strength, and impede resolution of future challenges
Three of his stages and strengths are relevant to infancy and the preschool years
Each of 8 stages involves a unique challenge
Successful resolution results in a particular strength of psychosocial development
Failure may stunt development, the relevant strength, and impede resolution of future challenges
Three of his stages and strengths are relevant to infancy and the preschool years
Basic trust vs. mistrust (infancy)
Infants depend on caregivers to meet their needs and provide comfort
If needs are not met, the child develops wariness and a lack of comfort
When caregivers responsively and consistently meet these needs, the child develops a basic sense of trust and openness
Hope: the strength involving openness to new experience, tempered by wariness that discomfort or danger may arise; acquired with a proper balance of trust and mistrust
Basic trust vs. mistrust (infancy)
Infants depend on caregivers to meet their needs and provide comfort
If needs are not met, the child develops wariness and a lack of comfort
When caregivers responsively and consistently meet these needs, the child develops a basic sense of trust and openness
Hope: the strength involving openness to new experience, tempered by wariness that discomfort or danger may arise; acquired with a proper balance of trust and mistrust
Autonomy vs. doubt (1-3 years)
Children realize they can have control over their own actions and act independently
If autonomy is not achieved, children can feel ashamed of their capabilities and start to doubt them
Will: a strength involving children's knowledge that they can act on their world intentionally but within limits; arises from a blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt
Autonomy vs. doubt (1-3 years)
Children realize they can have control over their own actions and act independently
If autonomy is not achieved, children can feel ashamed of their capabilities and start to doubt them
Will: a strength involving children's knowledge that they can act on their world intentionally but within limits; arises from a blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt
Initiative vs. guilt (3-5 years)
Guilt can arise when taking initiative places children in conflict with others or when they pursue their own ambitions without cooperating with others
Initiative may develop when children successfully play with different roles (e.g., as a parent) and explore possibilities for themselves
Purpose: a strength involving balance between individual initiative and a willingness to cooperate with others
Initiative vs. guilt (3-5 years)
Guilt can arise when taking initiative places children in conflict with others or when they pursue their own ambitions without cooperating with others
Initiative may develop when children successfully play with different roles (e.g., as a parent) and explore possibilities for themselves
Purpose: a strength involving balance between individual initiative and a willingness to cooperate with others
The Growth of Attachment

Attachment to caregivers is a critical aspect of Erikson's first stage (basic trust vs. mistrust)
Evolutionary psychology: many human behaviors are successful adaptations to the environment
Humans are social beings who also form parent-child attachments
These are adaptations promoting survival to the reproductive years, thereby sustaining the species' existence
Attachment to caregivers is a critical aspect of Erikson's first stage (basic trust vs. mistrust)
Evolutionary psychology: many human behaviors are successful adaptations to the environment
Humans are social beings who also form parent-child attachments
These are adaptations promoting survival to the reproductive years, thereby sustaining the species' existence
Attachment: an enduring socioemotional relationship with an adult
Ensures survival
Likeliest when the caregiver is responsive and caring
Often formed with mothers, because they usually are primary caregivers
Can occur with any responsive and caring person
Bowlby proposed four stages of attachment
Attachment: an enduring socioemotional relationship with an adult
Ensures survival
Likeliest when the caregiver is responsive and caring
Often formed with mothers, because they usually are primary caregivers
Can occur with any responsive and caring person
Bowlby proposed four stages of attachment
Steps Toward Attachment

Preattachment stage (birth to 6-8 weeks)
Infants rapidly learn to recognize their mothers
Infants display many behaviors that elicit adult caregiving (e.g., crying, smiling)
Attachment in the making (6-8 weeks to 6-8 months)
Infants behave differently toward familiar versus unfamiliar adults
Infants are more easily consoled by familiar adults and act happier in their presence
Preattachment stage (birth to 6-8 weeks)
Infants rapidly learn to recognize their mothers
Infants display many behaviors that elicit adult caregiving (e.g., crying, smiling)
Attachment in the making (6-8 weeks to 6-8 months)
Infants behave differently toward familiar versus unfamiliar adults
Infants are more easily consoled by familiar adults and act happier in their presence
Steps Toward Attachment (cont'd)

True attachment (6-8 months to 18 months)
Infants have singled out a "special" adult as their secure and stable socioemotional base
Reciprocal relationships (18 months on)
Toddlers act as true partners in the relationship, taking initiatives in interaction
Can anticipate that parents will return after a separation, which benefits coping
Toddlers begin to understands parents' feelings and goals
May use these to guide their own behavior (e.g., social referencing)
True attachment (6-8 months to 18 months)
Infants have singled out a "special" adult as their secure and stable socioemotional base
Reciprocal relationships (18 months on)
Toddlers act as true partners in the relationship, taking initiatives in interaction
Can anticipate that parents will return after a separation, which benefits coping
Toddlers begin to understands parents' feelings and goals
May use these to guide their own behavior (e.g., social referencing)
Father-Infant Relationships

Attachment to fathers tends to follow that with mothers
Fathers tend to spend more time playing with children than taking care of them
Fathers play with children differently than mothers (more rough and tumble)
Mothers more often read to children and talk with them
Children tend to seek out the father for a playmate; mothers are preferred for comfort
Attachment to fathers tends to follow that with mothers
Fathers tend to spend more time playing with children than taking care of them
Fathers play with children differently than mothers (more rough and tumble)
Mothers more often read to children and talk with them
Children tend to seek out the father for a playmate; mothers are preferred for comfort
Forms of Attachment

Ainsworth's Strange Situation paradigm
Three phases (~3 minutes each)
Child and mother first occupy an unfamiliar room filled with toys
Mother leaves room momentarily
Mother then returns to room
Observe child's reactions during each
Classified four types of attachment
Three were insecure types (least frequent)
One is secure (frequent)
Ainsworth's Strange Situation paradigm
Three phases (~3 minutes each)
Child and mother first occupy an unfamiliar room filled with toys
Mother leaves room momentarily
Mother then returns to room
Observe child's reactions during each
Classified four types of attachment
Three were insecure types (least frequent)
One is secure (frequent)
Four Types of Attachment Relationships

Secure attachment (60-65%): baby may or may not cry upon separation; wants to be with mom upon her return and stops crying
Avoidant attachment (20%): baby not upset by separation; ignores or looks away when mom returns
Resistant attachment (10-15%): separation upsets baby; remains upset after mom's return and is difficult to console
Disorganized attachment (5-10%): separation and return confuse the baby; reacts in contradictory ways (e.g., seeking proximity to the returned mom, but not looking at her)
Secure attachment (60-65%): baby may or may not cry upon separation; wants to be with mom upon her return and stops crying
Avoidant attachment (20%): baby not upset by separation; ignores or looks away when mom returns
Resistant attachment (10-15%): separation upsets baby; remains upset after mom's return and is difficult to console
Disorganized attachment (5-10%): separation and return confuse the baby; reacts in contradictory ways (e.g., seeking proximity to the returned mom, but not looking at her)
Strange Situation Paradigm - Criticisms

Cultures may vary in what they consider appropriate responses to separation and reunion; ergo, we cannot rely on these alone
Attachment Q-set: observers watch moms and children interact at home, then rate numerous attachment-related behaviors to form a total score
Scores from Strange Situation and Q-set correlate highly and both predict later quality of relationship (e.g., insecurely attached infants later report anger with parents and low intimacy with them)
Cultures may vary in what they consider appropriate responses to separation and reunion; ergo, we cannot rely on these alone
Attachment Q-set: observers watch moms and children interact at home, then rate numerous attachment-related behaviors to form a total score
Scores from Strange Situation and Q-set correlate highly and both predict later quality of relationship (e.g., insecurely attached infants later report anger with parents and low intimacy with them)
Consequences of Attachment

Environmental instability and stress may cause changes in the quality of attachment (from secure to insecure)
Early attachment may not well predict later outcomes partly due to these factors
Early secure attachment predicts
successful and confident peer relationships
fewer conflicts with friends
more stable and higher-quality romantic relationships
Environmental instability and stress may cause changes in the quality of attachment (from secure to insecure)
Early attachment may not well predict later outcomes partly due to these factors
Early secure attachment predicts
successful and confident peer relationships
fewer conflicts with friends
more stable and higher-quality romantic relationships
Consequences of Attachment (cont'd)
Early disorganized attachments predicts problems with anxiety, anger, and aggression
Two mutually nonexclusive explanations of why early attachment is a strong predictor
Early relationships teach children to trust and confide in others, leading to skilled social relationships
Parents who establish early secure attachments remain warm and supportive throughout childhood
What Determines Quality of Attachment
Secure attachment results from predictable, sensitive, and responsive parenting: Why?
Internal working model: a child's set of expectations about parents' availability and responsiveness, in general and during stress
Positive model: this person is dependable, caring, plus concerned about my needs and willing to meet them
Negative model: this person is uncaring, undependable, unresponsive, and even annoyed by my needs
What Determines Quality of Attachment? (cont'd) Temperament also contributes to attachment
Fussy and difficult-to-console babies are somewhat less likely to form secure attachments
Particularly for rigid and traditional mothers than accepting and flexible ones
Parental training helps parents interact more affectionately, responsively, and sensitively
Promotes secure attachments and positive internal working models
What Determines Quality of Attachment? (cont'd)

Temperament also contributes to attachment
Fussy and difficult-to-console babies are somewhat less likely to form secure attachments
Particularly for rigid and traditional mothers than accepting and flexible ones
Parental training helps parents interact more affectionately, responsively, and sensitively
Promotes secure attachments and positive internal working models
Attachment, Work, & Alternate Caregiving
Quality of mother-child attachment for 15- and 36-month-olds is unrelated to
daycare's quality or length of stays
number of changes in daycare
age when this care began
type of childcare (e.g., childcare center vs. in the home with a non-relative)
child forming attachments to nonparental caregivers
Insecure attachments are likelier given low-quality or frequent childcare combined with moms who already are unresponsive and insensitive
Quality of mother-child attachment for 15- and 36-month-olds is unrelated to
daycare's quality or length of stays
number of changes in daycare
age when this care began
type of childcare (e.g., childcare center vs. in the home with a non-relative)
child forming attachments to nonparental caregivers
Insecure attachments are likelier given low-quality or frequent childcare combined with moms who already are unresponsive and insensitive
Features of High-Quality Daycare
Low ratio of children to caregivers
Well-trained, experienced staff
Low staff turnover
Ample opportunities for educational and social stimulation
Good communication between parents and daycare workers about the program's goals and routines
Sensitive and responsive caregiving is key
5.2 Emerging Emotions:
Emotions have functional (adaptive) value (e.g., guiding behavior and facilitating relationships)
Theorists distinguish complex from basic emotions
Basic emotions consist of
a subjective feeling
a physiological change
an overt behavior
They consist of joy, sadness, anger, fear, distress, disgust, interest, and surprise
All have emerged by 8 to 9 months
Studying infants' facial expressions and overt behaviors reveals their probable trajectory
Development of Basic Emotions
Newborns: pleasure and distress
2 to 3 months: sadness
2 to 3 months: social smiles
occur upon seeing a human face
sometimes accompanied by cooing
express pleasure at seeing another
4 to 6 months: anger
reflects an increasing understanding of goals and their frustration
Development of Basic Emotions
6 months: stranger wariness
child looks away and begins to fuss
occurs once children start to locomote
adaptive as a natural restraint against wandering away from familiar others
occurs less with strangers in a familiar environment
wanes once children can recognize friendly faces
6 months: disgust
adaptive in signaling toxins (e.g., feces) or potential illness (e.g., vomit)
Emergence of Complex Emotions
Complex emotions include guilt, embarrassment, and pride
To be experienced, child first must understand the self and behavior in relation to whether they have met standards or expectations
This self-understanding emerges around 15-18 months
Complex emotions emerge at 18-24 months
Later Developments
With increasing cognitive development, children experience basic and complex emotions in more and different situations
Ex.: fear of the dark or imaginary creatures declines during elementary school
understand appearance vs. reality
Ex.: elementary school but not preschool children would experience
shame for not defending a peer
normative fear about school, health, and personal harm
Cultural Differences in Emotional Expression
Many basic and complex emotions are expressed similarly around the world
Expressing emotions differs across cultures
Asian children are encouraged to show emotional restraint
European-American 11-month-olds cried and smiled more than Chinese infants of same age
Cultural Differences (cont'd)
Cultures differ in which events trigger emotions
Asian children are proud of class-wide achievement
American children are proud of public personal achievement, whereas Asians are embarrassed
American children express anger at others for ruining their property or hurting them
Asian-Buddhist children would inhibit anger and feel shame instead for their possible role in the event
Recognizing & Using Others' Emotions
Adults are more skilled at recognizing subtleties in emotion and detecting when others are faking an emotion
4-6 months: differentiate among faces expressing happiness, sadness, and fear
Like adults, infants attend more to facial expressions of negative emotions than happy or neutral ones (adaptive value)
Infants understand a facially displayed emotion as shown by them matching their emotions to other people's
Recognizing Others' Emotions (cont'd)
Social referencing: 12-month-old infants use adults' (e.g., parents') facial and vocal emotion displays to direct their own behavior
A child will
avoid an object if parent expresses fear or disgust
approach the object if parent shows happiness
14-month-olds remember earlier observed emotional reactions of parents to particular objects
18-month-olds use the reactions of one adult to another adult's behavior to guide their own behavior
Recognizing Others' Emotions (cont'd)
Factors contributing to children's emotion understanding
parents and children frequently discussing past emotions (especially negative ones, such as fear and anger)
parents explaining how feelings differ and feelings' situational elicitors
a positive and rewarding relationship with parents and siblings
possibly contributes due to more frequent discussions about a full range of emotions
Regulating Emotions
Emotion regulation: controlling in some way what one feels and how to communicate the feeling
Dependent on cognitive processes
Attention (e.g., reducing anger by diverting attention to less provocative stimuli, thoughts, or feelings)
Reappraisal (e.g., lessening an emotion's intensity by differently interpreting the significance or meaning of an event or feeling)
Across age, some children more poorly regulate their emotions compared to others, which can create adjustment problems (e.g., peer conflicts)
Regulating Emotions (cont'd)
4-6 months: use simple strategies to regulate emotions (e.g., turning away from a scary image)
24 months: because it better gets an adult's attention and help, express sadness rather than fear or anger
Older children and adolescents
become better able to control their own emotions rather than relying on others
use mental strategies to regulate emotions
tailor their strategy to the particular situation (e.g., whether its avoidable or not)
Interacting with Others: Learning Objectives
...
The Joys of Play
Even two 6-month-olds look, smile, and point at each other
12 months: parallel play, in which children play alone but are keenly interested in what others are doing
15-18 months: simple social play, in which children do similar activities and talk or smile at each other
24 months: cooperative play, theme-based play where children take special roles (e.g., hide-and-seek)
Make-Believe
Values and traditions are expressed through make-believe or imaginary characters
Entertaining, while promoting cognitive development
Helps children explore frightening topics
Imaginary playmates promote imagination, sociability, and adjustment
Pretend play is a regular part of preschooler's play
16-18 months understand difference between pretending vs. reality
Solitary Play
Usually not an indicator of problems
Can reflect uneasiness with others for which professional help should be sought if child
wanders aimlessly among others
hovers over others who are playing
Gender Differences in Play
24-36 months: children spontaneously prefer playing with same-sex peers
Not restricted to gender-typed games
Resist adult encouragement to play with the opposite sex
Increases through to pre-adolescence
Why? Gender-typed play styles, such as
boys prefer rough and tumble, competition, and dominance
girls are more cooperative, prosocial, and conversation-oriented
Gender Differences in Play (cont'd)
Why the same-sex play preference? (cont'd)
Girls are more enabling
Their acts and remarks support others and sustain interactions
Boys are more constricting
try to be the victor by exaggerating, and threatening or contradicting the other
Evolutionarily adaptive?
Males strive to establish a high rank to gain access to more mates
Females have affiliation goals, because they traditionally left their community to join another
Parental Influence
Parental involvement in child's play can lead to later improved peer relations when parents serve as
playmate, scaffolding the child's play and rendering it more sophisticated
social director, arranging play dates and official play activities (e.g., swimming)
coach, helping children learn how to initiate interactions, make joint decisions, and resolve conflicts (when done appropriately)
Parental Influence (cont'd)
Parents also serve as mediators to help children resolve disputes, share, and identify mutually acceptable activities
Parent-child attachment relationships indirectly influence children's play
When of high quality & emotionally satisfying
children generalize this positive internal working model to peer relationships
children are more confident about exploring their environment, yielding more opportunities to form new relationships
Helping Others
Prosocial behavior: one that benefits another
Ex.: cooperating, being polite
Altruism: prosocial behaviors not directly benefiting the self, but driven by feelings of responsibility toward others
Ex.: sharing one's lunch with a friend who forgot his; helping a lost child
Adaptive? Increases person's chances of receiving help, thereby promoting survival, later sexual reproduction, and passing along these genes
Helping Others (cont'd)
18 months: recognize others' distress signals and will try to comfort them; will help someone in need (e.g., helping a teacher pick up markers she/he dropped)
By 3 years: are gradually starting to understand others' needs and learning appropriate altruistic responses
Still somewhat limited because of egocentrism in distinguishing others' needs or desires from their own
Skills Underlying Altruistic Behavior
Perspective-taking: accurate perception of another's physical, social, or emotional viewpoint as distinct from one's own
Empathy is one manifestation: the actual experience of another's feelings
The state and trait of empathy promote helping
Situational Influences
Why do even kind children sometimes act cruelly? Help is likelier when children
feel responsible for the person in need, which reminders of friendship's or affiliation's importance can promote
believe they have the skills to be helpful
are in a good rather than a bad mood
incur fewer costs or sacrifices for helping
The Contributions of Heredity
Prosocial behavior is more similar in identical twins than fraternal ones
Genes influence aspects of temperament related to prosocial behavior
Certain children are aware of another's need, but
feel so distressed that they cannot figure out how to help due to poor emotion regulation skills
their inhibition (shyness) prevents them from helping, despite knowing how
Socialization of Altruism
Children are more prosocial and/or empathic when parents
model warmth and concern for others
model being cooperative, helpful, and responsive
discipline warmly and supportively, set guidelines, and give feedback
use reason while disciplining, stating how children's actions affect others
provide children opportunities to behave prosocially in and outside the home
Gender Roles & Gender Identity: Learning Objectives
...
Images of Men & Women: Facts & Fantasy
Social role: cultural guidelines as to how we should behave, especially with others
Gender roles are one of the first learned
Learning gender stereotypes
Our world is not gender neutral
18 months: girls and boys look longer at gender-stereotyped pictures of toys
4-year-olds: extensive knowledge of gender-stereotyped activities and some behaviors or traits


Preschool: believe boys are physically, but girls verbally, aggressive
Post-preschool: continuously growing beliefs about gender-stereotyped traits and occupations
Males will have more prestigious jobs (earn more money, have greater power)
Boys are strong and dominant, whereas girls are emotional and gentle
Recognize gender stereotypes as behavioral guidelines that are not necessarily binding
Gender-Related Differences (cont'd)
Social influence: girls comply more with adult directions and more readily accept others' influence attempts, possibly because they value group harmony
Aggression: starting at 17 mos., boys are more physically aggressive (across cultures)
Girls are likelier to engage in relational aggression
Hurt others by damaging their peer relationships (e.g., gossip, ignore, spread rumors)


Emotional sensitivity: girls are more empathic; can better express and interpret others' emotions
Caveats about gender differences
They depend on experience
Historical changes affect them
Most differences are small, reflecting only the average difference between groups of boys and girls
Ex.: some girls may outperform boys on spatial tasks, while some boys may be more emotionally sensitive than girls
Gender Typing
Parents are equally warm and encouraging to boys and girls
However, results show parents to model and differentially reinforce "appropriate" gender-typed behaviors, with
girls playing with dolls, dressing up
boys engaging in rough-and-tumble play, playing with blocks, mild aggression
Results support social learning theory

Differential reinforcement of gender-typed traits and behaviors is likelier in
parents with traditional views of each gender's rights and roles
fathers, who punish their sons more for gender-atypical behavior, and are more accepting of dependence in girls
Mothers rarely contradict or question children's gender-stereotyped statements

Peers influence gender roles in two ways
Children learn more about their role from like-sex than opposite-sex peers by engaging so often in same-sex play
sharpens one's sense of gender group membership
heightens the contrast between each gender's roles and behaviors
Peers treat boys even more harshly than girls for "feminine" activities and interests
Gender Identity
Gender identity: sense of self as male or female
When is this formed? Kohlberg's three stages
Gender labeling: understanding that one is a girl or boy and labeling the self as such (2-3 years)
Gender stability: understanding that one will forever be a boy or girl (preschool)
Gender constancy: understanding that one's maleness or femaleness does not transform across situations, or with personal wishes and superficial changes (4 to 7 years)

Kohlberg: only after obtaining gender constancy (Stage 3) do children start learning gender roles
Some results show this learning to occur earlier, after mastering gender stability (Stage 2)
Gender constancy does help children think more flexibly about gender roles (e.g., ok for girls to play with trucks or boys with dolls)
This theory addresses when but not how children learn about gender or gender-appropriate behaviors

Gender-schema theory: addresses "how" children learn about gender and gender roles
Children decide if objects, activities, or behaviors are "male" or "female" and then decide whether they should learn more about these
Once children understand or refer to themselves by gender, they play more often with gender-stereotyped toys (17-21 mos.) and watch gender-typed TV shows and evaluate toys more positively if a child of their sex likes the toy
Biological Influences
Evolutionary theory: men and women evolved different traits and behaviors adaptive to their unique investments (e.g., childrearing for women and resource provision for men)
Identical twins are even more similar than fraternal twins in preference for sex-typical toys and activities
In utero testosterone exposure predicts preference for masculine-typed activities

Evolutionary theory: men and women evolved different traits and behaviors adaptive to their unique investments (e.g., childrearing for women and resource provision for men)
Identical twins are even more similar than fraternal twins in preference for sex-typical toys and activities
In utero testosterone exposure predicts preference for masculine-typed activities

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): genetic disorder of the adrenals secreting large amounts of androgen; affects girls, such that
their enlarged clitoris can resemble a penis
they prefer masculine activities and male friends
hormone therapy and sex operations do not undo these preferences
greater prenatal androgen exposure exacerbates these preferences
it seems to affect brain regions critical for gender-role behavior
Evolving Gender Roles
Family lifestyles, culture, and history influence children's gender roles
Family Lifestyles Project: studied 1960-70s counterculture members who socialized their children without traditional gender beliefs
Children did not stereotype occupations or object use (e.g., girls can use a hammer or boys an iron)
Children did prefer same-sex friends or activities
Evolutionary history partly continues to influence certain roles (e.g., women being nurturing or men being protectors and providers)
chapter 4 terms
accommodation
according to Piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge
animism
crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties such as feelings
assimilation
according to Piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what one already knows
attention
processes that determine which information will be processed further by an individual
autobiographical memory
memories of the significant events and experiences of one's own life
babbling
speech-like sounds that consist of vowel-consonant combinations; common at about 6 months
cardinality principle
counting principle that the last number name denotes the number of objects being counted
centration
according to Piaget, narrowly focused type of thought characteristic of preoperational children
classical conditioning
a form of learning that involves pairing a neutral stimulus and a response originally produced by another stimulus
cooing
core knowledge hypothesis
egocentrism
difficulty in seeing the world from another's point of view; typical of children in the preoperational period
equilibration
according to Piaget, a process by which children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium when disequilibrium occurs
essentialism
children's belief that all living things have an essence that can't be seen but gives a living thing its identity
expressive style
language-learning style of children whose vocabularies include many social phrases that are used like one word
fast mapping
a child's connections between words and referents that are made so quickly that he or she cannot consider all possible meanings of the word
grammatical morphemes
words or endings of words that make a sentence grammatical
guided participation
children's involvement in structured activities with others who are more skilled, typically producing cognitive growth
habituation
becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly
infant-directed speech
speech that adults use with infants that is slow and has exaggerated changes in pitch and volume; it is thought to aid language acquisition
intersubjectivity
mutual, shared understanding among participants in an activity
mental hardware
mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate
mental software
mental "programs" that are the basis for performing particular tasks
object permanence
understanding, acquired in infancy, that objects exist independently of oneself
one-to-one principle
counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted
operant conditioning
view of learning, proposed by B. F. Skinner, that emphasizes reward and punishment
orienting response
an individual views a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, and changes in heart rate and brain-wave activity occur
overextension
when children define words more broadly than adults do
overregularization
grammatical usage that results from applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule
phonemes
unique sounds used to create words; the basic building blocks of language
phonological memory
ability to remember speech sounds briefly; an important skill in acquiring vocabulary
private speech
a child's comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the child's own behavior
referential style
language-learning style of children whose vocabularies are dominated by names of objects, persons, or actions
language-learning style of children whose vocabularies are dominated by names of objects, persons, or actions
a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs
scheme
according to Piaget, a mental structure that organizes information and regulates behavior
sensorimotor period
first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, which lasts from birth to approximately 2 years
stable-order principle
stable-order principle
telegraphic speech
speech used by young children that contains only the words necessary to convey a message
teleological explanations
children's belief that living things and parts of living things exist for a purpose
underextension
when children define words more narrowly than adults do
zone of proximal development
difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alone
4.1 Piaget's Account: Learning Objectives
Children are active scientists or explorers of their world
Children make sense of the world through schemes
Mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge
Children adapt by refining their schemes and adding new ones
Schemes change from physical to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops
Piaget's Account: Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation: fitting new experiences into existing schemes
Required to benefit from experience
Accommodation: modifying schemes as a result of new experiences
Allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences
Basic Principles of Cognitive Development
Children are active scientists or explorers of their world
Children make sense of the world through schemes
Mental categories of related events, objects, and knowledge
Children adapt by refining their schemes and adding new ones
Schemes change from physical to functional, conceptual, and abstract as the child develops
Piaget's Account: Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation: fitting new experiences into existing schemes
Required to benefit from experience
Accommodation: modifying schemes as a result of new experiences
Allows for dealing with completely new data or experiences
Piaget's Account: Equilibration
Equilibrium - balance between assimilation and accommodation
Disequilibrium - experience of conflict between new information and existing concepts
Equilibration - inadequate schemes are reorganized or replaced with more advanced and mature schemes
Occurs three times during development, resulting in four qualitatively different stages of cognitive development
Piaget's Account: Periods of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor period (0-2 years)
Infancy
Preoperational period (2-7 years)
Preschool and early elementary school
Concrete operational period (7-11 years)
Middle and late elementary school
Formal operational period (11 years & up)
Adolescence and adulthood
Piaget's Account: Sensorimotor Thinking
Deliberate, means-ends behavior
8 months
Object permanence: knowing an object still exists even if not in view
Not fully understood until 18 months
Using symbols
Anticipate consequences of actions, instead of needing to experience them
18 to 24 months
Piaget's Account: Preoperational Thinking
Egocentrism
Difficulty seeing world from others' perspectives
Animism
Crediting inanimate objects with life and lifelike properties
Centration
Concentrating on only one facet of a problem to the neglect of other facets
Piaget's Account: Preoperational Thinking (cont'd)
Conservation: knowing that volume, mass, number, length, area, or liquid quantity are the same despite superficial appearance changes
Centration interferes with conservation
Appearance is reality
Assuming that an object is really what it appears to be (e.g., thinking that Shrek is a real ogre)
Implications of Piaget's Theory for Fostering Cognitive Development
Create environments where children can actively discover how the world works
Provide experiences just slightly ahead of children's current stage
Help children actively discover inconsistencies in their thinking
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
Underestimates infants' and young children's cognitive ability
Overestimates adolescents' cognitive ability
Vague about mechanisms and processes of change
Does not account for variability in children's performance
Cognitive development is not as stage-like as Piaget suggested
Undervalues the sociocultural environment's influence on cognitive development
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naïve Theories
Children develop specialized theories about much narrower areas than Piaget suggested
Core knowledge hypothesis
Infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world
Children elaborate knowledge based on experience
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naïve Theories (cont'd)
Naïve physics: infants rapidly create a reasonably accurate theory of objects' basic properties
Infants understand these properties earlier than Piaget hypothesized
4.5 months: understand object permanence
5 months: understand that liquids, but not solids, change shape when moved
6 months: understand gravity and objects' movements
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naïve Theories (cont'd)
Naïve biology
Infants: use motion to discriminate animate from inanimate objects
12-15 months: know that animate objects are self-propelled, move in irregular paths; act to achieve goals
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naïve Theories (cont'd)
4-year-olds understand specific properties of living things
Movement, growth, internal parts, inheritance, illness, healing
Teleological explanations
Living things and their parts exist for a purpose: dogs have fur so we can pet them
Essentialism
Although invisible, all living things have an essence giving them their identity
Extending Piaget's Account: Children's Naïve Theories (cont'd)
Preschoolers' naïve biology has limits
Do not know genes are basis for inheritance
Think body parts have intentions or desires
Do not know plants are living things
May stem from belief in goal-directed motion as key feature of living things
4.2 Information Processing: Learning Objectives
What is the basis of the information-processing approach?
How well do young children pay attention?
What kinds of learning take place during infancy?
Do infants and preschool children remember?
What do infants and preschooler know about numbers?
Information Processing: General Principles
Human thinking is understandable via a computer model
Mental hardware: neural and mental structures enabling the mind to operate
Mental software: mental programs allowing for performance of specific tasks
Information Processing: Attention
Attention: when sensory information receives additional cognitive processing
Orienting response: emotional and physical reactions to unfamiliar stimulus
Alerts infant to new or dangerous stimuli
Habituation: lessened reactions to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Helps infant ignore biologically insignificant events
Information Processing: Learning
Classical conditioning
When an initially "neutral" stimulus (e.g., a bell) becomes able to elicit a response (e.g., salivation) that previously was caused only by another stimulus (e.g., food)
Infants are capable of this conditioning regarding feeding or other pleasant events
Infants are less capable of this regarding aversive stimuli
Information Processing: Learning (cont'd
Operant conditioning: when a behavior's consequence make this behavior's future occurrence more likely (reinforcement) or less likely (punishment)
Ex: Giving flowers to a girl results in being kissed, so you give flowers in the future (reinforcement)
Ex: Giving flowers to a girl results in being slapped, so you stop giving flowers (punishment)
Imitation: learning a new behavior by observing others
Older infants imitate, but do 2- to 3-week-olds? (controversial)
Information Processing: Memory
2- to 3-month-olds
remember past events
forget them over time, but remember again with cues
Autobiographical memory in preschoolers
exists for significant events in their own past
is richer when parents engage children in conversations about the past, or ask for expanded descriptions of the past
appears as a sense of self emerges
Information Processing: Memory (cont'd)
Basis for age-related memory changes
Hippocampus and amygdala develop early
6-month-olds can store new information
Frontal cortex develops in second year
toddlers begin retrieving information from long-term memory
Preschoolers as Eyewitnesses
Preschoolers
are quite vulnerable to suggestion and leading questions
may "remember" an event as actually occurring even though someone only told them this
have limited source-monitoring skills
ability to remember the source of recalled information (e.g., knowing an investigator called them "cute" instead of a stranger having said this)
Preschoolers as Eyewitnesses (cont'd
Accuracy of recall is improved when
interviewed very soon after event
encouraged to tell the truth and that it's okay to say "I don't know"
asked to describe event in their own words
made comfortable by first recounting a neutral event (e.g., a birthday party)
asked questions allowing for alternate explanations of the event
Information Processing: Learning Number Skills
5-month-olds have basic number skills
distinguish 2 from 3 objects and 3 from 4
perform simple addition and subtraction
6-month-olds compare quantities by ratio
10-month-olds know the larger of two quantities
Information Processing: Learning Number Skills (cont'd)
Preschoolers have mastered three principles when applied to five or fewer objects
One-to-one principle: number name for each object counted
Stable-order principle: number names must be counted in the same order
Cardinality principle: last number in a counting sequence denotes how many objects there are
5-year-olds use these principles regarding 9 or fewer objects
Information Processing: Learning Number Skills (cont'd)
Preschoolers have mastered three principles when applied to five or fewer objects
One-to-one principle: number name for each object counted
Stable-order principle: number names must be counted in the same order
Cardinality principle: last number in a counting sequence denotes how many objects there are
5-year-olds use these principles regarding 9 or fewer objects
4.3 Vygotsky's Theory: Learning Objectives
What is the zone of proximal development? How does it help explain how children accomplish more when they collaborate?
Why is scaffolding a particularly effective way of teaching youngsters new concepts and skills?
When and why do children talk to themselves as they solve problems?
Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934
Russian psychologist; died young (37), did not fully develop his theory beyond the period of childhood
Intersubjectivity: all participants having a mutual, shared understanding of an activity (e.g., game rules)
Guided participation: cognition develops via structured activities with more skilled others
Apprenticeship: the process during which a more skilled master teaches a skill or task to a less skilled "apprentice" such as a child
Promotes cognitive development
Mind & Culture: Vygotsky's Major Contributions
Zone of proximal development: difference between what children can do with or without assistance
Providing learning experiences within this zone maximizes achievement
Scaffolding: giving just enough assistance to match learner's needs
Students do not learn as well when told everything to do, nor when left alone to discover for themselves
Mind & Culture: Vygotsky's Major Contributions (cont'd
Private speech: "talking" to yourself to self-guide and self-regulate behavior
Speech is audible, but isn't directed at others, nor is it intended for others to hear
Later becomes internalized as inner speech
4.4 Language: Learning Objectives
When do infants first hear and make speech sounds?
When do children start to talk? How do they learn word meanings?
How do young children learn grammar?
How well do youngsters communicate?
Language: The Road to Speech
Perceiving speech
Phonemes: smallest, unique sounds
1-month-olds can distinguish between vowels and consonants
Different languages have different sets of phonemes
Children practice all phonemes, gradually restricting their use to only those to which they are exposed
Eventually, they lose the ability to distinguish unused phonemes
Language: Identifying Words
Children learn to pay more attention to often repeated and emphasized words
Infant-directed speech: adults speak slowly and exaggerate changes in pitch and volume when talking to infants
Sometimes called motherese because it was first observed in mothers
Language: Steps to Speech
At 2 months, infants begin cooing
Around 6 months, toddlers begin babbling
Babbling is a proven precursor to speech
At 8-11 months, children incorporate intonation or changes in pitch typical of the language they hear
Language: First Words and Many More
Around 1 year, children use their first words
Usually consonant-vowel pairs, such as "dada" or "wawa"
By 2 years, children have a vocabulary of a few hundred words
By age 6, children know around 10,000 words
Language and the Grand Insight: Words as Symbols
Before 12 months: use symbols in areas other than language
Gesturing: infants will point, wave, smack lips to convey messages
12 to 18 months: gain insight that words are symbols for objects, actions, and properties
Language: Fast-Mapping of Words
18 months: approximately when we see an explosive rate of word learning
Fast-mapping: rapid connection of new words to their exact referents
Importance? Means that children actually know to which object a new word refers, instead of thinking about all possible referents
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning
Joint attention: parents labeling objects, plus children relying on adults' behavior to interpret the label's meaning
Constraints on word names: children using various rules to learn new words
An unfamiliar word refers to the object not already having a name
Names refer to the whole object instead of its parts
A new name (T-rex) for an already named object (dinosaur) denotes the object's subcategory name
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning (cont'd)
Sentence cues: children interpret unfamiliar words in a sentence using different cues
Rely on words they already know and the sentence's structure to infer a new word's meaning or its function in a sentence
Rely on the sentence's context
Knowing to which object a word refers by attending to the sentence's adjective (e.g., the boz means the middle block with wings instead of any other blocks without wings)
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning (cont'd)
Cognitive factors: rapid cognitive growth and skill cause an explosion in new word learning
Development of goals and intentions motivates children to learn language
Improved attentional and perceptual skills (e.g., shape bias)
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning (cont'd
Developmental changes in word meaning
Before 18 months: learn words relatively slowly (one word/day)
By 24 months: learn many new words daily
Greater use of language and social cues
Reduced use of attentional cues
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning (cont'd)
Naming errors
Underextension: defining a word too narrowly (e.g., using "car" to refer only to the family car)
Overextension: defining a word too broadly (e.g., using "doggie" to refer to all four-legged animals)
Less common in word comprehension
More common in word production
May reflect another fast-mapping rule
If you cannot remember the object's actual name, say the name of a related object (e.g., say "doggie" for a picture of a goat)
Language: Factors Contributing to Rapid Learning (cont'd)
Children use sentence cues to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words
Ex: "Our Pug went woof-woof" (Pug must be some kind of dog)
Better attentional and perceptual skills assist in learning language
Naming errors result from underextension and overextension
Language: Individual Differences in Word Learning
Huge individual differences: vocabulary ranges from 25 to 250 words at 18 months. Why?
Size of children's vocabulary is
greater for children with better phonological memory - the ability to remember speech sounds briefly
greater for children exposed to a richer language environment
a bit more similar in identical than fraternal twins
Language: Bilingualism
Learning two languages at once initially slows down vocabulary learning
Bilingual compared to monolingual children
have somewhat smaller vocabularies for each language
have a greater total vocabulary
better understand words' arbitrary symbolic nature
are more skilled at switching across tasks
are better able to inhibit inappropriate responses
Language: Word Learning Styles
Two distinct styles of word learning, but most children blend them
Expressive style: social emphasis
Vocabularies include social interaction and question words plus naming words
Referential style: intellectual emphasis
Vocabularies consist mainly of words naming objects, persons, or actions
Vocabularies consist of few social interaction words or question words
Language: Encouraging Language Growth
Parents can assist in learning language by
speaking to children frequently
naming objects that grab children's attention
using grammatically sophisticated speech
reading to children while carefully describing pictures and asking questions
encouraging watching TV programs that emphasize new word learning, tell stories, and ask questions (e.g., Sesame Street, Blues Clues)
Language: Encouraging Language Growth (cont'd)
Before 18 months, commercially available infant-oriented "language learning" videos are ineffective. Why?
Many videos poorly designed and developmentally inappropriate
Young children do not actively participate in the videos, so they cannot relate what they see in them to real-world objects, actions, or experiences
Language — Speaking in Sentences: Grammatical Development
18 months: two- and three-word sentences based on simple formulas (e.g., actor + action)
Reflect telegraphic speech — using words directly relevant to meaning and no more ("I no sleep")
Reflect over-regularization errors — applying rules to words that are exceptions to the rule ("I goed home")
Exclude grammatical morphemes — words or endings making a sentence grammatical
By preschool, they show growing knowledge of grammatical rules instead of simple memory (Berko,1958)
Language: How Do Children Acquire Grammar?
Behaviorist solution: imitation and reinforcement
Flawed
Children produce novel sentences
Children do not imitate adult grammar
Grammar is far too complex to learn by simply hearing adult speech
Language: How Do Children Acquire Grammar? (cont'd)
Linguistic solution: innate neural mechanisms guide the learning of grammar
Sentences breaking grammatical rules activate specific left hemisphere regions
Human-specific grammar-learning neural mechanisms — chimps can master only two-word speech (after massive effort)
Critical period for language and grammar acquisition (birth to 12 years)
Vocabulary growth and mastery of grammar are intimately connected
Language: How Do Children Acquire Grammar? (cont'd)
Cognitive solution — children look for patterns, detect irregularities, and create rules
Grammatical knowledge reflects multiple examples stored in memory instead of being innate
Social-interaction solution — eclectic integration of behavioral, linguistic, and cognitive solutions, plus the importance of accurate communication during social interaction promotes language and grammatical development
Language: Communicating with Others
Effective communication requires
making sure to speak in language the listener understands
paying attention while listening and making sure the speaker knows if he/she is being understood
taking turns as speaker and listener
before 2 years: parents encourage conservational turn-taking and often model turn-taking
after 2 years: spontaneous turn-taking is common
by 3 years: adjust speech to listeners, but often ignore problems in received messages
Language: Speaking Effectively
10 months: deliberate communication efforts through pointing and looking at another
12 months: communicate through speech; initiate conversations
Preschool age: adjust messages to listener's knowledge and the context (e.g., a word's ambiguity)
Language: Listening Well
Preschool age: often do not realize when a message is ambiguous
Elementary school age: can evaluate when a message is consistent and clear