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Geology Unit 1

Geology Unit 1 Exam Study Guide Test 26 September 2012
STUDY
PLAY
Scientific Method
way a scientist approaches a problem, 5 steps:
1. Problem or Experiment
2. Hypothesis
3. Test Hypothesis
4. Multiple Tests to Support Hypothesis
5. Hypothesis Becomes Theory
if hypothesis doesn't work, discard or reformulate
Earth Systems Science
breaking large, complex problems into smaller pieces
2 major categories:
1. Closed: energy in and out
2. Open: energy and matter in and out
Reservoir
location where the stock (item) of interest resides for awhile
Flux
process moving stock in or out
Geosphere
solid earth, as a whole
Biosphere
all living and dead organisms
Atmosphere
gasses that surround earth
Hydrosphere
water and ice, surface and underground
Hydrologic Cycle
movement of water
Rock Cycle
processes that form, modify, transport, or break down rock
Tectonic Cycle
processes that drive movement and interactions in lithosphere
Uniformitarianism
Hutton, processes governing Earth's system today have operated in similar ways in the past, "the present is the key to the past" (fossil record)
Terrestrial Planet
like earth, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Jovian Planet
gas, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Planetary Accretion
outer portions of solar nebula cooled into discs of debris, random collisions formed clumps that pulled in remaining debris through gravity
Meteorite
fragment of extraterrestrial material that falls to earth
Crater
rim shattered
Differentiation
layering of terrestrial planets based on chemical composition
Crust
outermost compositional layer
Mantle
middle layer of earth, made out of Olivine
Core
intermost layer
Seismic Data
how the interior of earth responds to earthquake waves
What makes earth unique?
1. atmosphere rich in oxygen
2. hydrosphere contains water as a solid, liquid and vapor
3. biosphere full of living organisms
Soil
part of the regolith that can support rooted plants
Regolith
irregular blanket of loose, noncemented rock particles that covers a planets surface
Body Wave
travels through earth's interior
Surface Wave
travels along earth's surface
Focus
when rupture commences and an earthquake's energy is 1st released
Seismic Discontinuity
boundary inside earth where velocities of seismic waves change abruptly
Gypsum
crystal used for drywall
Mineral
naturally formed, solid, inorganic substance w/ characteristic crystal structure and a specific chemical composition
Ionic Bond
transfer of electrons from one atom to another, packed together
Covalent Bond
carbon bonding, triangle, atoms "pair up"
Metallic Bond
tightly packed atoms that share electrons
Van der Waals Bond
weak, between neutral molecules
Telling Minerals Apart
1. Color
2. Streak: thin layer of powder
3. Density: reflection of compactness of atoms
4. Luster: quality and intensity of light reflection
5. Hardness: resistance of scratching
6. Crystal Form: flat or planar surface
7. Habit: distinctive shape
8. Cleavage: manner in which mineral breaks
Silicate Minerals
strongly bonded, complex anion that contains both silicon and oxygen
Ore Deposits
localized concentration can be extracted profitably
Mining
disturbs earth's surface, damage to environment
Rocks
naturally formed, coherent aggregate of minerals and possibly other non-mineral matter
Igneous Rock
form by cooling and solidification of molten rock (magma)
Sedimentary Rock
form under conditions of low pressure and low temperature near surface
Metamorphic Rock
altered by exposure to high temperature, low pressure or both
Crystallization
process where mineral grains form and grow in cooling magma
Volcanic Crystallization
first cooling, near or above ground
Plutonic Crystallization
slow cooling, deep in ground
3 Groups of Igneous Rocks
1. Felsic: lots of silica
2. Intermediate: intermediate silcia
3. Mafic: lower silica
Filter Pressing
compaction of early cummulates because interstitial liquid to be squeezed upwards
Weathering
how rocks disintegrate, chem and physical breakdown of rock exposed to air, moisture, living organisms
Mechanical Weathering
breakdown of rock into solid fragments by physical processes
Chemical Weathering
decomposition of rocks and minerals by chem and biochemical reactions
Dissolution
separation of materials into ions in a solution by a solvent
Products of Weathering
1. Clay: tiny material particles of any kind that have physical properties like those of clay minerals
2. Sand: sediment made of coarse mineral grains
3. Soil: mixture of minerals w/ diff grain sizes, along w/ some some materials ob biologic origin
4. Silt: grain b/w mud and sand
Erosion
wearing away of bedrock and transport of particles
Mass Wasting
slope failure or landslide, downslope movement of regolith and/or bedrock masses due to gravity
Deposition
laying down of sediment
Sediment
formed from fragmented and mineral debris, produced by weathering and erosion
Chemical Sediment
formed by precipitation or minerals dissolved in lake, river or sea water
Biogenic Sediment
sediment primarily composed of plant/animal remains
Clastic Sediment
sediment formed from fragmented rock and mineral debris produced by weathering and erosion
Lithification
processes by which loose sediment is transformed into sedimentary rock
Bedding
layered arrangement of strata in sediment
Bedding Surface
top or bottom surface or rock stratum or bed
Compaction (Lithification Process)
reduction of space in a sediment as a result of weight of overlying sediment
Concentration (Lithification Process)
substances dissolved in pure water precipitate out and form a matrix in which grains of sediments are joined together
Recrystallization (Lithification Process)
formation of new crystalline mineral grains
Types of Clastic Rocks
1. Conglomerate: large fragments in a fine grained matrix
2. Sandstone
3. Mudstone/Shale
Types of Biogenic Rocks
1. Limestone
2. Peat
3. Coal
Delta
sedimentary deposit, commonly triangle shaped, that forms where a stream enters a standing body of water
Estuary
semi-enclosed body of coastal water, in which fresh water mixes w/ sea water
Metamorphism
mineralogical, texture, chemical and structural changes that occur in rocks
result of exposure to elevated temperature/pressure
Factors that influence Metamorphism
Temperature, Pressure, pore fluids (add or take away chemicals), stress
Foliation
planar arrangement of textural features in a metamorphic rock
Regional Metamorphism
extensive area of crust associated w/ plate convergence, collision and subduction
stress and foliation
Contact Metamorphism
next to igneous intrusion, rocks heated and chemically changed, local in extent
Natural Resources
useful material that is obtained from lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, or biosphere
Renewable Resources
resource that can be replenished or regenerated within human lifetime
Nonrenewable Resources
resource that cannot be replenished or regenerated within human lifetime
Mineral Resources
everything that we use one way or another uses minerals/metals that come from ground
Hydrothermal (how mineral deposits are formed)
when minerals precipitate out of hot water solution
Magmatic (how mineral deposits are formed)
when certain minerals crystallize from a magma and are concentrated perhaps by fractional crystallization
Placer (how mineral deposits are formed)
when certain minerals are transported by water and deposited in river sand banks
Rock Deformation
stress or strain causing an alteration in the shape, volume, or surface of rock
Stress
force acting on surface per unit area w/ direction
1. Tension: pulling out
2. Compression: push in
3. Shear: top and bottom
Strain
change in shape or volume of rock in response to stress
Elastic Deformation
temporary change in shape or volume from which a material rebounds after stress is removed
Ductile Deformation
permanent but gradual change in shape or volume of material, caused by flowing or bending
Brittle Deformation
permanent change in shape or volume, in which material breaks or cracks