High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition that often affects people with type 2 diabetes. It is unknown why there is such a significant correlation between the two diseases, but it is widely assumed that obesity, a high-fat, high-sodium diet, and inactivity have led to a rise in both conditions.
According to the ADA, the combination of hypertension and type 2 diabetes is particularly lethal and can significantly raise a person's risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Having type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure also increases your chances of developing other diabetes-related diseases, such as kidney disease, and retinopathy (eye blood vessels), which may cause blindness.
Hypoglycemia may be caused by insulin or oral antidiabetic drug overdoses; failure to eat an adequate number of calories despite diabetic treatments; unusual levels of exercise (usually among treated diabetics); extreme starvation (fasting hypoglycemia); alcoholic depletion of carbohydrate reserves from the liver; salicylate overdoses; and rarely, an insulin-secreting tumor of the pancreas.
A patient with moderately low blood sugar may feel fatigued, dizzy, restless, hungry, or unusually irritable; have difficulty concentrating; or have spontaneous episodes of sweating, palpitations, tremor, or nausea. Severely low blood sugar produces delirium, violent behaviors, obtundation, seizures, coma, and, occasionally, death. Some patients who have treated their diabetes mellitus with insulin for many years may lose the normal ability to recognize symptoms of low blood sugar.
Abnormally high blood sugar levels. Hyperglycemia can cause numerous unwanted effects. It can impair wound healing; decrease the body's ability to fight infections; worsen the neurological deficits found in stroke; increase the risk of death in critically ill patients; and damage the kidneys, peripheral nerves, retinae, blood vessels, and heart.
Hyperglycemia may result from damage to the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas; infusions of dextrose; insulin resistance; obesity; overeating; a sedentary lifestyle; the stress of heart attack or other critical illnesses; or treatment with some drugs such as steroids or protease inhibitors.
Among outpatients, high blood sugar levels can be reduced with caloric restriction (dieting), regular exercise, oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, and/or withholding offending drugs. Self-blood glucose monitoring and the keeping of a blood sugar log helps patients and their health care providers to recognize and manage hyperglycemic trends. Patients with diabetes mellitus need to understand the role maintaining glycemic control plays in preventing complications of their disease. Consultation with a diabetic nurse educator can provide the necessary information (and impetus) for good management of diet, medication regimens, and exercise.
Dementia is a syndrome characterized by dysfunction or loss of memory, orientation, attention, language, judgment, and reasoning. Personality changes and behavioral problems such as agitation, delusions, and hallucinations may result.
Dementia is overwhelming for the families of affected people and for their caregivers. Physical, emotional and economic pressures can cause great stress to families and caregivers, and support is required from the health, social, financial and legal systems.
Dementia has significant social and economic implications in terms of direct medical costs, direct social costs and the costs of informal care.
Behavioral changes may include the following: Eating, dressing, toileting (e.g., unable to dress without help; becomes incontinent) Interests (e.g., abandons hobbies) Routine activities (e.g., unable to perform household tasks) Personality (e.g., inappropriate responses, lack of emotional control)
Multi-infarct dementia is the most common form of vascular dementia, which is a deterioration in mental function caused by narrowing of blood vessels in the brain.
Keeping a schedule, not too may options for the patient to choose from everyday, quiet environment