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Board Review: Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (178)
What are the three layers of the heart wall?
the outermost heart wall layer
The pericardium is a _______-walled membranous sac enclosing the heart.
the middle heart layer
If there is partial blockage of coronary arteries (due to atherosclerosis) preventing adequate oxygenated blood from reaching the hear, it is known as.....
ischemic heart disease or coronary heart disease
When a person has ischemic heart disease or coronary disease it manifests as.....
total blockage of the blood supply
When infarction occurs it manifests as....
myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion, or heart attack.
True or False? When someone has an infarction the heart muscle cells die.
What is the treatment of ischemic heart disease/angina?
Which layer of the heart wall is the thickest and provides strength?
Which arteries provide blood supply to the myocardium?
intermittent chest pain or discomfort; often upon exertion or stress; pain may radiate to the left shoulder, arm or to jaws; pain is due to transient reversible myocardial hypoxia
Myocardial infarction usually occurs in the _____ ______.
usually caused by coronary artery thrombosis or blood clot; often seen in patients with history of angina; may be fatal
the innermost heart wall layer
True or False? Heart valves are also lined by endocardium.
Which valves are most commonly affected by infective endocarditis?
aortic and mitral valves
What patients are prone to bacterial endocarditis?
patients with damaged valves from rheumatic heart disease
IV drug use
previous use of phen-fen
patients with prosthetic valves
In infective endocarditis microbes from the ______ colonize on the valves leading to formation of thrombotic masses.
Colonies of microorganisms are called _______.
obstruction of blood flow
The heart has ____ chambers.
Which side of the heart receives used blood (deoxygenated) from veins?
The right heart pumps blood into the lungs to do what?
release carbon dioxide and to pick up oxygen
The ____ heart received oxygenated blood from the _____ and pumps it into the body.
is a receiving room; relatively thin walls; has trapdoor or valve which opens
does most of the pumping; walls are thick and muscular; has a valve that separates heart chamber from blood vessel
What valve, in the right heart, separates the right atrium and the right ventricle?
What valve allows blood to enter the pulmonary artery on the way to the lungs?
What valve allows blood to flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle?
What valve opens in the left ventricle to allow blood to pump into the aorta?
the aortic valve
True or False? The right ventricle is more muscular than the right ventricle.
False; the left ventricle is more muscular because it pushes blood to the entire body while the right ventricle just pushes blood into the nearby lungs
True or False? The left and right atrium fill at the same time. The left and right ventricles fill at the same time. The left and right ventricles contract at the same time>
True; two hearts beat as one; properly functioning valves assure that blood flows in only one direction
carry oxygenated blood from the heart to body parts
carry deoxygenated blood from body parts to the heart
the great artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body
brings deoxygenated blood from the head and the arms to the heart
superior vena cava
brings deoxygenated blood from the legs and lower parts of the body to the heart
inferior vena cava
brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
brings deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
The heart receives its blood supply from the _____ arteries, which exit from the aorta near the aortic valve.
True or False? The left coronary artery branches while the right coronary artery does not.
the pacemaker of the heart; located in the upper right atrium; contains nerve and muscle cells that ignite a wave of muscle contraction in the heart
sinoatrial node (SA node)
The wave created by the sinoatrial node spreads over atrial muscles to the _______ node. This node further spreads the wave throughout the ventricles
atrioventricular node (AV node)
Malfunction of the sinoatrial node can cause ______, which can lead to ventricular fibrillation possible causing death.
graphic tracing of impulses; electrical currents produced when heart muscle contracts; recorded peaks and valleys
usually involve incompleteness in the formation of structures of the heart; includes malformations of structures valves, chambers, septal defects; can be mild or severe
congenital heart disease
What are some examples of congenital heart diseases?
hypertensive heart disease
congestive heart failure
a delayed immune-mediated inflammatory condition that may occur following exposure to strep throat; involves joints, skin, heart, may cause heart damage in acute phase leading to valvular deformities; detected as cardiac murmurs
True or False? Diseased valves from Rheumatic Fever predispose individuals to infective endocarditis.
occurs in %5 of population; often diagnosed in people aged 20-40; more common in women; valves become "floppy" regurgitation occurs; cases may be mild to severe; increases the risk of infective endocarditis
Mitral Valve Prolapse
True or False? Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse need premedication prior to dental treatments.
False; they do not need premedication
pressure raised in arteries; heart forced to pump against high blood pressure; heart wall thickens; predisposes patients to atherosclerosis, stroke, and coronary heart disease
Hypertensive Heart Disease
Hypertensive heart disease is a result of long term ____ blood pressure that causes the heart to be overworked.
Factors contributing to hypertension include....
obesity, smoking, stress, genetics, diabetes, alcohol abuse, age, and medications such as NSAIDS, birth control pills, decongestants, and tricyclic antidepressants
the inability of the left, right, or both sides of the heart to adequately pump the blood delivered to it by the venous system
Congestive Heart Failure
when the left ventricle is not pumping adequately, blood backs up into the lung leading to ....
difficulty breathing while laying down
waking up during sleep to catch breath
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Important clinical symptoms of left-sided heart failure include...
dyspnea, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and cough
Right-sided heart failure is most often caused by _____-_____ heart failure.
leads to edema in the soft tissues (seen as swollen ankles in the extremes); affects many organs (liver)
right-sided heart failure
chronic disease of arteries characterized by thickening and hardening of the vessel walls; it can cause narrowing of arteries, high blood pressure, insufficient perfusion of tissue, or weakening and outpouching of arterial walls
usually refers to atherosclerosis of small vessels
localized dilation or outpouching of a vessel wall or cardiac chamber
Ex: aortic aneurysm
blood clot that is attached to a vessel wall; may cause obstruction and blood stasis; in a vein, it is associated with inflammation and is termed______
obstruction of a vessel by matter that is circulating in the bloodstream; may be a dislodged thrombus, air, fat, bacteria, or foreign matter
Which of the following valves is located between the right atrium and right ventricle?
Which of the following layers of the heart is the thickest?
Which of these statements is/are true?
a. the left and right ventricle contract at the same time
b. when the left ventricle contracts, the mitral valve and aortic valve close at the same time
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
a. the left and right ventricle contract at the same time
Blood to the heart muscle is supplied by the:
Which of the following statements is/are true?
a. the mitral valve is the valve most often involved in rheumatic fever
b. patients with congenital heart disease are at a greater risk of developing infective endocarditis than those with a normal heart
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
c. both a and b
Which node is called the pacemaker of the heart?
Systolic pressure represents:
On a medical history form, a patient indicates that his ankles swell, he is short of breath after climbing one flight of stairs, and he sleeps with two pillows. Which disease is suspected.
congestive heart disease
The respiratory system includes the _____ and _____ respiratory tracts.
lined with fine hairs to filter foreign particles
assists in bringing in larger amounts of air
valve that closes over the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea
entrance to the lungs that connects the larynx to the bronchi
forked division of the trachea that leads to the right and left lung
small subdivisions of the bronchial tree
part of the lung made up of bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli
primary gas exchange area of the lung, where oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide is removed
has three main bronchi, each leading to one of the lobes
has two main bronchi, each leading to one of the lobes
layer of tissue covering the lungs and chest wall
layer of tissue covering the lungs
layer of tissue covering the chest wall
Stimulus for respiration is controlled by the amount of ____ ____ in arterial blood.
remember how breathing is regulated-by carbon dioxide, not oxygen
molecules move across from higher concentration gradient to lower concentration
As blood passes through the body it gives off oxygen to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide through the process of _____.
infections of the lung that may involve a lobe or the entire lung, primarily caused by bacteria and viruses; inflammatory disease of the lung; gaseous exchange can become severely compromised, leading to death
patchy distribution involving more than one lobe; type of pneumonia
not patchy, involves entire lobe; type of pneumonia
characterized by an increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli
Asthma is a widespread narrowing of the airway due to ...
smooth muscle contraction
Asthma can be triggered by...
dust, pollen, molds, foods, air pollution, respiratory infections, physical exertion, emotional stress
What are some of the clinical features of asthma?
dyspnea, wheezing, non-productive cough, prolonged expiration, laboring to get air out
How long can an asthma attack last?
one to several hours
Treatment of asthma attacks include....
non-reversible airway obstruction; characterized by dyspnea particularly when reclined; primary etiologic factor is smoking
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
True or False? It is okay to give a patient with COPD oxygen.
False; do not give high levels of oxygen to avoid shutting down the hypoxic drive
an enlargement of the air spaces due to the destruction of the alveoli walls; as the walls break down, reducing the surface for gaseous exchange, expiration must be forced
What is the primary etiologic factor for emphysema?
What are some characteristics for emphysema?
coughing and wheezing
may lead to respirator failure and congestive heart failure
True or False? Emphysema may be treated with supplemental oxygen?
characterized by the presence of a chronic productive cough for 3 or more consecutive months for more than 2 years
In chronic bronchitis air flow obstruction is due to ________ of the bronchial mucous glands.
presence of air in the pleural cavity; caused by traumatic wounds in chest wall; rupture of visceral pleura; emphysema
reduced oxygenation of arterial blood
difficulty in breathing when in a horizontal position
The layer of tissue covering the lungs is knows as
the visceral pleura
Bronchopneumonia is an infection of the lung that has a patchy distribution involving more than one lobe. Lobar pneumonia is and infection of the lung that is not patchy and involves the entire lobe.
both statements are true
COPD is a non-specific term for emphysema or chronic bronchitis, or both occurring together. The primary etiologic factor is smoking.
both statements are true
Pneumothorax is the presence of air in the pleural cavity. It is often seen in patients with congestive heart failure.
first statement is true; second is false
function is to secrete hormones into the blood stream in order to regulate all the systems of the body
chemical compounds that modify the activity of the body's cells and tissues
the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thymus gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, and pancreas
the pituitary gland is referred to as the.....
the pituitary gland is located in the...
The _____ portion of the pituitary gland secretes hormones.
The anterior pituitary secretes what hormones?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
growth hormone (GH)
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
melano-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortisone
stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroxin and triiodothyroxine
thyroid stimulating hormone
stimulates pigment production of the skin
Acromegaly is caused by an _______ of the anterior pituitary gland.
large hands, head, feet, and protruding mandible
clinical signs of acromegaly
True or False? The hypothalamus is closely linked with the pituitary gland.
acts as a general regulator of appetite, sex drive, fatigue, body temperature, energy level, and thirst
processes stem cells into T-lymphocytes; cell-mediated immunity
The ______ gland is the largest endocrine gland.
regulates body metabolism; regulates growth; storehouse for iodine; secretes hormones (T4 and T3)
underproduction of thyroid hormones
intolerance to cold; obesity; lethargy; low BP; low heart rate; dry skin are all clinical features of...
severe form of hypothyroidism seen in older children and adults; edema around the eyes, thick tongue, slurred speech
severe form of hypothyroidism seen in children; dwarfism, delay in eruption of teeth
the overproduction of thyroid hormones; nervousness, intolerance to heat, excessive sweating, weight loss, high BP, goiter, and exophthalmos (bulging eyes)
What is the most common type of hyperthyroidism?
A true medical emergency that can occur in patients with poorly controlled or undiagnosed hyperthyroidism is termed....
True or False? Patients with hyperthyroidism are sensitive to epinephrine used in local anesthetics and retraction cord.
The _______ gland secretes parathyroid hormone.
this hormone regulates the blood calcium level by influencing bone breakdown and resorption
When parathyroid hormone levels increase it can cause....
bone pain, bone cysts, bone features, and osteoporosis, kidney stones, mental changes, GI changes
clinical features of hyperparathyroidism
What abnormalities may be seen on dental radiographs in hyperparathroidism?
loss of lamina dura
"ground glass" appearance of alveolar bone
jaw bone radiolucency (brown tumor)
The adrenal glands consist of the ____ and the _____.
The adrenal cortex secretes _______.
the coat or outer portion of the adrenal gland; secretes 3 steroid hormones
in the middle of the adrenal gland; secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine
inadequate production of adrenal cortex hormones; due to progressive destruction of the adrenal cortex; usually the result of an autoimmune process
Addison's disease is a ___function of the adrenal gland.
weakness, nausea, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loos, intolerance to stress, low BP, pigmentation of skin (bronzing) & oral mucosa
clinical features of Addison's disease
What is the treatment for Addison's disease?
inadequate production of adrenal cortex hormones; caused by lack of ACTH; usually a result of prolonged use of "steroid" medication; clinical features are the same as those for Addison's disease
secondary adrenal insufficiency
Patients who have been on steroids for a long period of time must have _____ reduction of those steroids to prevent a medical emergency.
in untreated Addison's disease and secondary adrenal insufficiency, an _____ ____ may be provoked by physical stress, dental infections, or surgery
Patients undergoing an adrenal crisis may require supplemental ______.
Hyperfunction of the adrenal gland results in _____ _____.
muscle wasting, large trunk, moon face, tendency toward diabetes, high BP, delayed wound healing, osteoporosis
clinical features of Cushing's syndrome
produces digestive enzymes and produces hormone insulin in islet cells of Langerhan
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type II)
increased blood sugar
Oral manifestations of diabetes includes....
increased incidence of periodontal disease
An important function of the kidney is maintenance of ____ volume by regulating the amount of water excreted or absorbed.
What organ rids body of waste, maintains blood volume, regulates electrolyte balance, and maintains blood pressure?
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
What part of the kidney regulates blood filtration?
What does the Loop of Henle do in the kidney?
reabsorb water ions from urine
The parathyroid gland regulates
blood calcium level
Polydipsia is seen in both Type I and Type II diabetes. Ketoacidosis is seen only in Type II.
first statement is true; second is false
Epinephrine is contraindicated for a patient with
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