The measurement of the characteristic responses of film to exposure and processing and is accomplished by exposing and processing a film and then measuring and evaluating the resulting densities (How a film responds to radiation)
two devices that are used to produce a uniform range of densities on a film
device required to provide an accurate reading of the amount of light transmitted through the film
Device constructed of uniform absorbers of increasing thicknesses and made of aluminum or tissue-equivalent plastic. (The thinner the step, the more the density changes).
Penetrometer (step wedge)
Numeric calculation that compares the amount of light transmitted thru an area of radiographic film to the amount of light orginally striking (incident) the film.
Optical Density Formula
OD= log10 (I o/I t) where:
I o= intensity of incident light I t= intensity of transmitted light
when using a log scale with a base of 10, every .3 increment increase represents
the percent of light transmitted has changed by a factor of 2 or a doubling in exposure
Graphic relationship between the amount of exposure and the resultant density on film
Base + Fog
AKA "Toe" on Curve Density at no exposure, or density that is inherent in film (tint)
Straight Line Portion
Portion between toe and shoulder (gamma)
maximum density film is capable of recording (highest point of curve)
Additional exposure beyond Dmax will result in ___ because silver atoms attached to sensitivity specks will be ___, reversing their charge and causing them to be repelled from the speck.
less density ionized again
Reduces the intensity of the latent image and will produce less density
reversal or solarization
Resolution, Speed, Contrast, Latitude
Ability to accurately image an object
resolution (also called detail, sharpness, definition, resolving power)
Amount of density a film produces for a given amount of exposure.
Determined by locating point on curve that corresponds to optical density of 1.0 plus B+F
Speed Exposure Point
Indicated intensity of exposure (log exposure) needed to produce a density of 1.0 plus B+F (point where you draw line from curve speed point to area on x-axis)
The OD specified for determining speed is 1.0 above B+F density and the speed is measured in reciprocal roentgens (1/R)
Relative Speed Formula
1/exposure in R needed to produce speed point density (OD 1.0+ B+F)
Difference between adjacent densities on a film. Defined by slope of straight-line portion of curve
Gradient Point? toe gradient is between? middle gradient? upper gradient?
Slope of any part of curve between OD .25 and 1.0 between OD 1.0 and 2.0 between OD 2.0 and 2.5
Average Gradient Formula
OD .25 +B+F
OD 2.0 +B+F
exposure that produces D1 and D2
Range of exposures that produce ODs within the straight line region of curve. Formula = Eh-Ei
alternate name for penetrometer
why is a penetrometer not recommended for quality control of film processors
vast number of variables in x-ray generating equipment
why is penetrometer useful for monitoring x-ray equip and film/intensifying screen combos
reproduces variables of the clinical situation
designed to expose a reproducible, uniform, optical step wedge onto a film with a controlled-intensity light source
which uses x-rays to produce a step wedge: penetrometer sensitometer
type of light best for sensitometer source
optical step wedges are available in what 2 step versions
11 and 21
11 step wedge increase density by what percent ? which is a factor of ___.
21 step wedges increase density by what percent? what factor?
41 percent factor of 1.41 or the square root of 2
Because of the rigid control of the densities produced on the film, other variables that may affect processor quality control monitoring are eliminated, thus the use of a ____ for monitoring quality control of automatic processors is acceptable.
sensitometer produced step wedges
sensitometric film strips should be fed into a processor how? why?
either long edge or axis of the step wedge parallel to entrance rollers or with light edge entering processor first. exhausted reducing agents and bromide ions may be carried backward on the emulsion as film is driven through rollers
____ strips are produced by laser, dry imaging (when images are transferred to films_ and PACS to calibrate flat-panel monitors
device that provides a readout of the amount of blackening (density) on a film
parts of a densitometer
calibrated uniform light source stage for placing film light aperture to control light from source sensor arm with optical sensor readout display calibration control
densitometers should be calibrated before each reading to determine...
the amount of light the light source is emitting
how are density readings made by a densitometer
comparing amount of light emitted by source with amount of light transmitted through the film
how is the densitometer calibrated or zeroed for reading
pushing sensor arm so that sensor is in contact with light source to eliminate inverse squ. law
numbers displayed by a densitometer are know as
optical density numbers
radiographic film densities range from....
0.0 to 4.0
ability of a film to stop light
density is the log10 of
If a radiograph has an OD of 1.0 this means only what percentage of light is transmitted to the radiograph in this region? If the OD is increased to 1.3, then the opacity is ___ and the light transmitted through the film is ___?
10 doubled halved
increments of .3 changes represent...
doubling or halving of opacity
Alternate name for D log E curves
characteristic, sensitometric, Hurter and Driffield (H&D)
Density at no exposure, or density that is inherent in film (tint)
base + fog includes tints and dyes in base plus any fog film has experienced
radiographic film base density range
amount of OD that processing typically adds to a film in fog
Total b + f is rarely below OD __ and usually does not exceed ___
fog may be caused by..
heat, chemical fumes, light, x-radiation
natural amounts of radiation occurring on film is termed...
most of a film's fog is produced by...
controls subtle gray tones in early development process
phenidone controls which portion of the curve?
portion of curve between toe and shoulder
straight line portion
straight line portion is usually fairly straight because...
film is reacting in a linear fashion to exposure in the range of its primary sensitivity
range of diagnostic densities
low OD .25-.50 and high OD 2.0-3.0 majority will be between .5 and 1.25 (these densities are within the straight line portion)
controls heavy black tone later in development process? affects which part of the curve?
maximum density film is capable of recording
highest point of D log E curve
point on curve where all silver halides have a full complement of silver atoms and cannot accept more
extremely high or long exposures can cause silver halide crystals to become overloaded and ____ results
measured by the ability to see pairs of lines
unit of resolution
line pairs per mm lp/mm
determined by size of halide crystals
resolution because small crystals darken small areas and large crystals darken large areas, therefore information smaller than the crystal cannot be visualized
relationship between film resolution and crystal size
inverse (smaller crystal= higher resolution)
graininess controlled by..
size of intensifying screen phosphors rather than crystal size
determined by film's sensitivity to exposure
speed is controlled by the activity of ____ because it affects the toe of the D log E curve.
phenidone position of the toe determines when straight line portion begins and indicates overall speed
film sensitivity is determined primarily by...
size of silver halide crystals
factors affecting film sensitivity other than crystal size
number of sensitivity specks thickness of emulsion layer
relationship between film speed and crystal size
directly related (larger crystal-faster speed)
relationship between film speed and number of sensitivity specks
relationship between film speed and emulsion thickness
directly related one photon can interact with many crystals therefore if more crystals are in a given area, more interactions will occur
how is difference in film speed calculated
antilog (log E1- logE2) where log E1 is the log exposure of first film
formula for relative speed
1 ---------------------------------------------------------- exposure in R needed to produce speed point density (OD 1.0 +b+f)
film speed is affected by...
immersion time, solution temp., chemical activity
only ___ degrees in developer temp. will result in a visible change in film density
.5 higher temp increases activity level of reducing agents thereby producing greater density on the film
chemical activity factors affecting film speed
bromide ion barrier not formed properly (insufficient restrainer or overreplenishment) or it is too strong (excess restrainer or underreplenishment)
For the same film, a change in density will affect contrast only when...
above or below the straight line portion of the D log E curve
contrast is controlled by level of activity of ____
hydroquinone establishes which region of the curve and affects what other portion
shoulder straight line
measure of the slope of the straight line portion at speed point 1.0
radiographic film contrast is most commonly defined by what gradient
most radiographic film average gradients are between....
2.5 and 3.5
part of the curve that is the diagnostic range
straight line portion
if slope of straight line portion is 45 deg. the avg gradient will measure ___
True or false: doubling exposure will double density
in radiographic films, doubling the radiographic exposure will...
produce more than a doubling of radiographic opacity
used in quality control to indicate contrast
a contrast index is ....
two density points subtracted from each other
difference between densities
changes in the average gradient between the toe and shoulder are actually changes in ___
for OD measurements above or below the optimal contrast, contrast is ____
diagnostic range of radiographic film
low .12-.50 high 2.0-3.0 when densities are above or below this range contrast is decreased
contrast must exist with in the _____ to be visualized
straight line portion
range of exposures that will produce densities within the diagnostic range
formula for latitude
Eh-El h=high l=low
value of Eh? El?
Eh=OD2.50 exposure point El= OD .25 exposure point
relationship between latitude and contrast
inverse as contrast increases, latitude decreases
___ can change without altering the average gradient