Terms in this set (48)

Iturbide, thus beginning the great history of the Caudillo Leadership in Mexico...who's going to follow him? Santa Anna...Texans don't like Santa Anna very much...he and his troops went into Texas to try to keep Texas with Mexico...remember the Alamo...

So we begin with Caudillo Leadership in the 19th? century...so then we have Santa Ana, Benito Juarez, and Porfirio Diaz...the lecture on this particular part of the 19th century will be centered around these 3 Caudillo Leaders

What happens just before Santa Anna? The War for Independence

Santa Anna: Lost part of a leg in one of the battles, dug it up, brought it to Mexico city, put it in an urn...and they had poems to Santa Anna etc...you would expect this person to be very corrupt, one of the top 10 in LA in the past 300 years...and that's the major leagues for corruption...built a theater and named it after himself, etc...last straw for him was the Gadston Purchase? (sp?)?...Gave Santa Anna $15 million for a piece of land in the north to build a railroad (sold to US)...finally thrown out...by elites...?....Santa Anna sets up glorification of el presidente, strong caudillo leadership, corruption in the government....

He served as a Mexican politician and general. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, a skillful soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna."[3] He was called "the Man of Destiny," who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch."[4] Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo (military leader) of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest...He was a valiant defender of Mexico against foreign invaders, becoming a hero of the nation...

His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing just over half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836, and culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its defeat by the United States in the Mexican-American War
As Diaz gets older and older, Mexican elite gets concerned about the succession...Madero...Madero comes from a rich family...Madero says he'll run as Diaz's Vice President next time and then succession will be handled and elites will maintain charge...problem is Diaz doesn't want a successor, doesn't want someone to take power before he dies...decides to put Madero in jail and Madero flees...

Diaz gets more and more corrupt so has to flee?...lots of inequality etc...people want to get him...even for elites he's served his purpose (modernization)...so elites getting around Madero...

Madero is Sun Yat-Sen...the people who there's generally consensus about who should have power next? Problem for these two? Mao eventually gets power through barrel of a gun...so these people need the weapons?

CHINA vs Mexico Comparison: In China, Mao wins...Villa, Zapata, Carranza, Obregon...are like WARLORDS in CHINA...in Chinese case, warlords get beat and eventually Mao wins...and everyone else is dead...Nationalists didn't like this, warlords didn't like this, but they lost...

Mexican Solution to the same problem: Doesn't kill everyone, it's called a JUNTA...eventually end up with a bunch of warlords who decide that we 5, 7, 8 warlords will run the society, and that movement is called the Mexican Revolution

Madero and Sun Yat-sen's problem? No army, so Madero is dead...Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek got some help from the Russians, but there's no help for Madero...

Francisco Ignacio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko iɣ´naθjo maˈðeɾo ɣonˈsales]; 30 October 1873‒22 February 1913) was a Mexican statesman, writer, and revolutionary who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until his assassination in 1913.[2][3][4][5] He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for having challenged Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Born into an extremely wealthy landowning family in northern Mexico, Madero was an unusual politician, who until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, had never held office
Viva Cardenas(Mexican president from 34-40)...so part of the PRI right? PRI could be right or left...flexible, right?

if I'm on the left in Mexico today, my chant is Viva Juarez, Viva Zapata, Viva Cardenas (Mexican president from 34-40)
Cardenas the father? He was president 39-40? Maybe wrong dates...what did Cardenas do?...where did the Mexican state get all this oil? Cardenas nationalized the oil, so he's the great leftist hero...still a big fight on energy in Mexico right now?....
Trinity of the Mexican Left? Juarez, Cardenas, one more...then Cardenas has a son...Cardenas the son

Lázaro Cárdenas del Río; May 21, 1895 - October 19, 1970) was a general in the Mexican Revolution and a statesman who served as President of Mexico between 1934 and 1940. He is best known for nationalization of the oil industry in 1938 and creation of Pemex, the government oil monopoly.

Originally Cárdenas was the hand-picked candidate of former president Plutarco Elías Calles (1924-28), who founded the Partido Nacional Revolucionario in 1929 and who remained the power behind the president. Cárdenas out-maneuvered Calles politically and forced the former president into exile, establishing Cárdenas's legitimacy and power in his own right. His administration overhauled agrarian reform, initiated by the Mexican Revolution, and created ejidos in the Mexican agricultural sector, which gave peasants access to land, but did not give individual titles to it. He granted asylum to exiles from the Spanish Civil War, and strengthened the educational system
Cardenas the son...he thinks he should be chosen for president around 1990? Dates?(So was he part of the PRI? Seems right) But Salinas get chosen instead, who has completely different views from Cardenas the son...so what does Cardenas the son try to do...he decides to make another party, run for the president independently...he does this in 1998 election...after he's cheated out of the election in 1988, in 1989 the PRD comes into being, PRD: Revolutionary Democracy Party? (My note could be wrong)...

Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solórzano (Spanish pronunciation: [kwauˈtemok ˈkarðenas]; born May 1, 1934) is a prominent Mexican politician. He was a former Head of Government of the Federal District and a founder of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).

Election of 1988: Salinas is picked to run for the PRI...he had run 0 elections before...and running as an independent we've got Cardenas the son...who wins? Actually probably Cardenas...unfortunately for Cardenas the computers went down during the night and when they finally got them fixed they find that Salinas just barely wins...Cardenas said he was cheated, and a plurality at least of Mexican political experts say he was cheated...

1997: C Cardenas Mayor of Mexico City...2nd most important elected position in the entire country after El Presidente...such an important position is because Mexico City is where the decision making takes place...what party has run the mayorship since 1997? PRD...leftists...so are we ready to compare then with India?

2000: Vicente Fox President (42% of vote) (PAN), PRI-asuarus candidate (36%), Cardenas (17%)...Cardenas didn't do so well organizing Mexico City so he didn't do to well, but he is quite an orator...almost won the presidency in 1988 (when "computer crashed")...but by 2000 he's no longer a serious contender...
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (Spanish pronunciation: [erˈnesto seˈðiʝo]; born 27 December 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician. He served as President of Mexico from 1 December 1994 to 30 November 2000, as the last of the uninterrupted 70-year line of Mexican presidents from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)

so you've got Salinas worried about the person he just picked...but luckily he ends up dead...Salinas was a suspect? So party said he better not pick next president...they put together a committee to pick next president, and they pick Zedillo, Colosio's campaign manager...Zedillo very smart but not from elite, from middle class?...so shows you things are changing...and how does Zedillo do? Zedillo wins very easily

August 21: Zedillo Elected...1994...crisis year...

PRI: will run fairly strong in almost every area, probably need to get 40% of the vote...PRI's problem? Reform has been controversial in the PRI, how is the PRI going to split? Reform and Anti-Reform...ward bosses think Zedillo is an idiot...if I'm a PRI governor in Tabasco...south...liable to be an anti-reformer...because these people want the system to stay pretty much the same...they want to go back to the PRI system, cheat, pay off people, etc...great stratification socially down there...few rich lots of poor, and rich people know drug cartels...etc...so if I'm PRI biggest problem is holding the entire party together for a presidential candidate...if I can't hold it together I'm going to lose

Zedillo promised to root out corruption...appointed attorney general of opposition...who investigated Raul Salinas....the guy investigates...finds Raul Salinas had other identity...businesses, many estates, accounts in Switzerland, etc...his official job was only in charge of grain distribution? Raul Salinas' wife, Paulina Castanon, arrested in Switzerland and questioned after trying to move money or something for her husband who was in jail?...released after a month?

Colosio assassination a defining moment for Carlos Salinas...lost control of the succession...Zedillo ended up coming next...

In Mexico...have people in the party who are in favor of reform...Zedillo even appoints PRD guy as attorney general...investigates PRI people...so this is the break in the PRI....

Even though Zedillo offers reform...after watching that video none of us would vote for PRI...Fox wins...
Vicente Fox Quesada; born 2 July 1942 is a Mexican businessman who was President of Mexico from 1 December 2000, to 30 November 2006 under the National Action Party (PAN)
After Mexican revolution PRI didn't stand for anything? Flexible policy right?

Same thing for Fox, he stood for nothing...just a handsome guy, rides a horse...etc...very much like Pena Nieto in 2012? Handsome looking, looks good on a poster...so there's this kind of candidate...that's not Clinton, Sanders, or Trump...closest one we had a little bit like that would be Obama 2008

2000: Get a PAN president...who do we want to run? Vicente Fox...to appeal to the party want to have business experience, he was a Coca Cola executive...yay NAFTA (PAN supports NAFTA)...he's also culturally Catholic, goes to mass...he's also tall and rides a horse like Putin...Vicente Fox wins 42% of vote...is it likely that 42% of the vote will win? Yes, pretty likely...

on the other hand they find Fox is not a very good organizer of Mexican national state...for a whole bunch of reasons his presidency not so good (See packet)

What was Fox's slogan...cambio...CHANGE...vote for me so you get rid of all of those S.O.B.s PRI system

Vicente Fox wins 2000 42% of the vote...blue and white (Our Lady of Guadalupe), Catholics in the party etc...he runs on CHANGE....getting people to throw out the bums is a lot easier than deciding who's going to take over...Fox has an easier task because he just needs to get people to vote for CHANGE

So PAN has 2000 election won if they don't screw it up, and they run Fox...Fox from Guanajuato? Very strongly PAN...

Fox does not have a successful presidency...If I'm head of the PRI,don't want Fox to have a good presidency...if Fox fails,then what would happen? PRI thinks they would win after he preaches change and fails...so PRI going to make it as hard for him as possible...Fox was honest but he couldn't run the railroads/administration very well...so people say they got their change honestly but he couldn't run the system
If you're going to become the next presidential candidate in the PAN, how do you feel about Fox? Calderon runs away from Fox...and he was a different guy from Fox, he's an old, strong, organizer...strong administrator...his father was in some cabinet?...he said you'll get good things of Fox without the uncertainty, strong administrator...and he said he'd get rid of the drug cartels...

So Calderon says you'll get me and you won't get all the corrupt people coming back like the PRI corruption

What was Fox's slogan...cambio...CHANGE...vote for me so you get rid of all of those S.O.B.s PRI system...Calderon also runs on Change, change from PRI system and change from FOX...people not ready to have PRI come back...
People go for far left candidate of PRD...up until last week looked like they'd have a PRD winner, but Calderon won representing the PAN in 2006....Calderon's most important issue he ran on was like Trump describing democrats as a leftist extreme ready to sell US to ISIS...Calderon said you're getting a stronger administrator with me, staying away from PRI's corruption, and not going to get a crazy left wing revolutionary like the PRD...so do not vote PRD...so he tries to take down the PRD with advertising this way, and he wins by less than 1%.

2006...Calderon (35.89)...Lopez Obrador (35.31)...PRI candidate only got in the 20s % wise...why PRI so weak in this election? Shouldn't happen, that's like losing with Curry...Madrazo was PRI candidate...Madrazo was a PRI-asaurus...PRI-asauruses known for old system...anti-reform candidate...comes out of Tabasco and ran it the same way it had been for a long time...

So Mexicans saying...we don't like fox, but we don't want to go back to the old system...leaves an opening for Lopez Obrador...far left candidate from the PRD...about as far left as you get in Mexican system? Coming into last week Lopez Obrador was ahead but he narrowly lost...Calderon...young, energetic, looks like he could run a railroad...his father was a politician? In the PAN?

So Calderon says I am PAN but I am not Fox and everyone needs to worry about whether you can trust Lopez Obrador to act in democratic fashion...Lopez Obrador very stong left, old left...in election polling everyone said it would be nice to try Lopez Obrador but I don't know if I can trust him to keep the system going...so that's the advertising and everything

Calderon wins by less than 1%...then Lopez Obrador and his people tie up Mexico city for 2 months until people get tired of it

Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa; born August 18, 1962 is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from December 1, 2006, to November 30, 2012. He is a member of the Partido Acción Nacional (PAN), one of the three major Mexican political parties
My note: was PAN not working for people?...Pena Nieto and the Pact for Mexico...3 party solution right?...PRI still most powerful party expects about 45% so expects to win still? all my notes but verify

Same thing for Fox, he stood for nothing...just a handsome guy, rides a horse...etc...very much like Pena Nieto in 2012? Handsome looking, looks good on a poster...so there's this kind of candidate...that's not Clinton, Sanders, or Trump...closest one we had a little bit like that would be Obama 2008

Now election of 2012:
Election of 2006 was a debacle for PRI...how can you be the 45...the strongest in political system, and get 3rd most votes...so they get Pena Nieto, and set him up as candidate for 2012...he was governor of State of Mexico...in Mexico City the City, PRD strong there...PRD runs it since 1970? Purple around Mexico City, that state...largest of populations for voting...and could be won by any one of the three parties...like a donut of Virginia and Maryland around DC...so large population and all three parties are fairly strong there...This like Uttar Pradesh? Texas, California, and Ohio...so this is similar, biggest population in Mexico and it has strength in all three parties...for instance in another year would be governor of Ohio or Florida be good spot to run for president from? Yes in another year...

So they have Pena Nieto, looks good on posters, former governor of State of Mexico, and they try to limit his media exposure (he's dumb/bad at interviews?)

Pena Nieto has been positioned, strong political party, he looks good, and its pretty much a forgone conclusion that he will win...what do you think they expected? What would they have considered a success? About 45% of the vote, that's just the PRI keeping its own people...but what happens

If I'm Pena Nieto what solution am I going for? One party not an option...that lost PRI votes? (would that be old system PRI like how PRI lost in 2006?)

So could have two party (PRI + PAN), or Three parties solution (PRI + PAN + PRD (right wing PRD, Lopez Obrador would never join, so the right wing of the PRD that fighting Lopez Obrador might like this)

Old PRI system is dead...what would you need to put old PRI system back together again? Would need a strong majority for the presidency so you could count on it...in 2012 Pena Nieto got 38% of the vote...that's not a strong showing...PRI would also need control of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate....in 2012 it did not have control of either of those...so the possibility of going back to the old system is remote...just not going to happen...

Pena Nieto PACT FOR MEXICO RIGHT?

Enrique Peña Nieto; born 20 July 1966) is the 57th President of Mexico. His six-year term began in 2012.[1] A member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), he served as governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011
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