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78 terms

Biology Exam#3 Review

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Cuticle
the adaptation of plants that keeps them from drying out
secondary compounds
The major adaptation in plants that prevents predation
tracheids
Specialized cells to conduct water, key cells in xylem. a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients
phloem
(botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients
adaptations
Reduced gametophyte generation, tracheids, seeds, cuticles were all _______ for plants to move to land
antheridia
In moss, ________ produce sperm
moisture
The sperm produced by mosses require _____ to reach an archegonium
diploid, meiosis, haploid
In the moss life cycle _____ cells within a sporangium undergo _____ to produce _____ spores.
mitosis mitosis
In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____
vascular
Bryophytes do not have ______ tissue
Bryophyte
Nonvascular plants. Includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Antheridia
male gametangia. produce and release sperm into the environment.
Archegonia
Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant
Sporophytes
Plant spores are produced directly by _______
archegonia
May temporarily contain sporophyte embryos
microphylls
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.
rhizoids
thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)
placental transfer cells
Plant cells that enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo.
sporophytes
Among bryophytes, only the ___________ of mosses and hornworts have stomata
Stomata
____________ are missing from liverwort sporophytes
haploid haploid
A diploid sporophyte develops from a zygote that was produced when a ____________ sperm fertilized a __________ egg.
Diploid sporophyte
The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____
ferns
In _____________, while the gametophyte generation is independent, the diploid sporophyte is much larger.
underside
Haploid antheridia in ferns develop on the_____________ of mature haploid gametophytes.
byrophyte
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
homosporous
If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it belongs to a species that is _______________
homosporous
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
heterosporous
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
Sphagnum
any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
seedless vascular
Whole forests were dominated by large, _____________ _____________ plants during the Carboniferous period
Lycophyta, bryophyta, chlorophyta, pterophyta
Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups
Lycophyta
used in some classifications for the class Lycopsida: club mosses
Bryophyta
a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
Chlorophyta
[plant-like] Green algae; unicellular. Photosynthetic. Most have flagella @ a point in life. Store food as starch.
Pterophyta
Ferns. "Seedless plants". Among earliest vascular plants to colonize land. Life cycle involves alternation of generation (dominant stage is the sporophyte generation).
Angiosperms
flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit
Gymnosperms
classication of plant which produce seeds which are "naked" (unenclosed)
surface area
increased numbers of stomata, to maximize ability to absorb ever-decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2 all account for the increased number of stomata per ______________ _________, a beneficial adaptation during glacial periods
haploid spores
____________ __________ are produced by meiosis in plants
heterotrophy
the existence of male and female gametophytes is the result of _____________
gametophyte
An ongoing trend in the evolution of plants is the reduction of the ___________ generation
sporopollenin
water tight material that encases spores and pollen from modern plants helps resist drying,
sporangium
organ containing or producing spores
sporophyll
leaf in ferns and mosses that bears the sporangia
gametophytes
pollen grains are male _______________
immature sporophyte
In pines, an embryo is a(n) ______________ ____________
micropyle
the opening in the seed coat where the tube grows in order for the 2 sperm nuclei to fertilize the egg
one
Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).
meiosis
Diploid microsporangia form haploid microspores by _____________
windblown seeds
The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using
gymnosperms
pollen can be found in _______________
integument
an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
pollen tube
the male gametophyte produces the ______ __________
monocots
angiosperms that have only one seed leaf
seed
consists of an embryo and its food supply
ovule
a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant
pollen grain
Structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant
progymnosperms
extinct seedless vascular plants that may be ancestral to seed plants
conifers
cone-bearing plants
ovulate, pollen
In most conifer species, each tree has both an ___________ and ____________ cone
Megasporangium
An ovulate cone scale has two cone scales. Each one contains a _______________
germination
series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
microsporocytes
found in microsporangium; divides by meiosis, producing haploid microspores; a microspore develops into a pollen grain (a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall)
sepals
green, leaflike part of the plower that covers and protects the flower bud before it opens
stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
anther
the part of the stamen that contains pollen
filament
the stalk of a stamen
carpel
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.
stigma
sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land
style
(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
dry fruit
dehiscent vs indeishescent ehetheror not the pericarp split at a stem ex legumes beans grains nuts
fleshy fruit
consists of the ovary and some additional parts of the flower that, whose seeds are dispersed by animals after they are eaten
embryo sac
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.
double fertilization
unique to angiosperms, term used to describe one sperm fusing with the egg, while the other fuses with two nuclei in the large central cell of the famale gametophyte.
cotyledons
a seed leaf that stores food
endosperm
nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
eudicots
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.
gymnosperm
dominance of the sporophyte generation, development of seeds from fertilized ovules, and the role of pollen in transferring sperm to ovules are key features of a typical ______________ life cycle