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the adaptation of plants that keeps them from drying out

secondary compounds

The major adaptation in plants that prevents predation


Specialized cells to conduct water, key cells in xylem. a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients


(botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients


Reduced gametophyte generation, tracheids, seeds, cuticles were all _______ for plants to move to land


In moss, ________ produce sperm


The sperm produced by mosses require _____ to reach an archegonium

diploid, meiosis, haploid

In the moss life cycle _____ cells within a sporangium undergo _____ to produce _____ spores.

mitosis mitosis

In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by _____


Bryophytes do not have ______ tissue


Nonvascular plants. Includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts


male gametangia. produce and release sperm into the environment.


Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant


Plant spores are produced directly by _______


May temporarily contain sporophyte embryos


In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.


thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)

placental transfer cells

Plant cells that enhance the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo.


Among bryophytes, only the ___________ of mosses and hornworts have stomata


____________ are missing from liverwort sporophytes

haploid haploid

A diploid sporophyte develops from a zygote that was produced when a ____________ sperm fertilized a __________ egg.

Diploid sporophyte

The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a _____


In _____________, while the gametophyte generation is independent, the diploid sporophyte is much larger.


Haploid antheridia in ferns develop on the_____________ of mature haploid gametophytes.


In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?


If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it belongs to a species that is _______________


Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.


A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.


any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat

seedless vascular

Whole forests were dominated by large, _____________ _____________ plants during the Carboniferous period

Lycophyta, bryophyta, chlorophyta, pterophyta

Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups


used in some classifications for the class Lycopsida: club mosses


a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms


[plant-like] Green algae; unicellular. Photosynthetic. Most have flagella @ a point in life. Store food as starch.


Ferns. "Seedless plants". Among earliest vascular plants to colonize land. Life cycle involves alternation of generation (dominant stage is the sporophyte generation).


flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit


classication of plant which produce seeds which are "naked" (unenclosed)

surface area

increased numbers of stomata, to maximize ability to absorb ever-decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2 all account for the increased number of stomata per ______________ _________, a beneficial adaptation during glacial periods

haploid spores

____________ __________ are produced by meiosis in plants


the existence of male and female gametophytes is the result of _____________


An ongoing trend in the evolution of plants is the reduction of the ___________ generation


water tight material that encases spores and pollen from modern plants helps resist drying,


organ containing or producing spores


leaf in ferns and mosses that bears the sporangia


pollen grains are male _______________

immature sporophyte

In pines, an embryo is a(n) ______________ ____________


the opening in the seed coat where the tube grows in order for the 2 sperm nuclei to fertilize the egg


Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).


Diploid microsporangia form haploid microspores by _____________

windblown seeds

The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using


pollen can be found in _______________


an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell

pollen tube

the male gametophyte produces the ______ __________


angiosperms that have only one seed leaf


consists of an embryo and its food supply


a small body that contains the female germ cell of a plant

pollen grain

Structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant


extinct seedless vascular plants that may be ancestral to seed plants


cone-bearing plants

ovulate, pollen

In most conifer species, each tree has both an ___________ and ____________ cone


An ovulate cone scale has two cone scales. Each one contains a _______________


series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed


found in microsporangium; divides by meiosis, producing haploid microspores; a microspore develops into a pollen grain (a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall)


green, leaflike part of the plower that covers and protects the flower bud before it opens


The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.


the part of the stamen that contains pollen


the stalk of a stamen


The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.


sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land


(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma

dry fruit

dehiscent vs indeishescent ehetheror not the pericarp split at a stem ex legumes beans grains nuts

fleshy fruit

consists of the ovary and some additional parts of the flower that, whose seeds are dispersed by animals after they are eaten

embryo sac

The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.

double fertilization

unique to angiosperms, term used to describe one sperm fusing with the egg, while the other fuses with two nuclei in the large central cell of the famale gametophyte.


a seed leaf that stores food


nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants


Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.


dominance of the sporophyte generation, development of seeds from fertilized ovules, and the role of pollen in transferring sperm to ovules are key features of a typical ______________ life cycle

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