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hydro midterm study notes
Terms in this set (88)
Transfers of heat|
is an exchange of energy between two surfaces that are in direct contact with each other (Heat Packs, Cold Packs.
transference of heat by moving currents of heated liquids of gasses as in a sauna to increase body temperature
is the transfer of energy via infrared rays. Requires no direct contact. It travels through space (Sun, Sauna).
a substance changes its state. Thermal energy is either required or giving off in the process.
is a conversion of mechanical energy to thermal.
is a term used when water requires or releases extra energy in order to change its state without changing the temperature.
Latent Heat of Fusion.
When water reaches the Freezing Point of 0C it is still liquid. To freeze 1 ml of water it must release a further 80cal.
latent heat of melting
For the ice to melt it would require 80 cal and it becomes water again.
what creates the therapeutic outcome in hydrotherapy
The DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE between the source of heat or cold and the part of the body to which it is being applied
what is hydrotherapy
The application of water in any form (liquid, vapor or solid) in the treatment of disease and/or maintenance of health.
WHat is the most important factor in achieving positive clinical outcomes
The application's temperature in relation to the body's temperature, versus the medium used to heat or chill.
what plays an important role in thermoregulation
It is like your brain's little thermometer, and it craves consistent temperatures. It prevents heat loss via various mechanisms (discussed below), as well as promotes heat release.
what is medium through which TEMPERATURE, the true therapeutic application is applied.
why do we use hydrotherapy
it speeds up the recovery time from the injury and it also makes the therapist job easier. Remember the goals of any treatments are to aid the body's natural healing process.
is the body's non specific reaction to damage, inflammation occurs regardless of the type of damaging stimulus.
signs of acute injury
Goals of treatment for acute injury
results from the increase in capillary permeability
caused by pain and swelling, the injury itself and protective
primary functions of inflammation
Dispose of foreign entities at the injury site (bacteria)
Prevent the spread of entities
Prepare injured tissues for repair
key events in inflammation
vasodilation and increased permeability.
why is cold effective
minimizing the degrees of vasodilation.
Relieves pain by numbing nerve ending.
create superficial vasoconstriction, thus minimizing blood loss by narrowing the affected blood vessels.
Physiological local changes that occur as the result of the application of cold are:
Local vasoconstriction of vessels;
-Decreased muscle spasm;
decrease muscle spindle firing and decreased GTO reflex
local vasoconstriction of vessels
decrease in local blood flow=allows cold to penetrate deeper into the tissues as there is little influx of fresh warm blood
acts as an intense noxious stimulus that activates the inhibitory process. Applies to brief intense cold only, less than one minute.
how do systemic treatments help
They promote relaxation, detoxification, improve circulation to the whole body rather than part of it, as with local treatments. The effects of systemic treatments are more powerful and more lasting than local treatments
what should be carefullly monitored during systemic heat treatments
vitals; temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respiration
movement of fluid away from the body core or away from a specific area; doesn't require an expenditure of energy.
factors that influence heat effects
*temperature of application relative to temperature of the treated areas
*speed that the tissue is heated (adipose tissue will take longer)
*duration of application
*presence/absence of coupling agent ( moist towel versus dry towel)
*size of treatment area (the larger the area, the greater the systemic effect)
*amount of adipose tissue in the
Physiological local changes that occur as the result of the application of HEAT are:
Vasodilation of vessels/ Increase in local blood flow.
*Increased collagen extensibility
*Increased local tissues metabolism
*Nerve stimulation- increased tolerance to pain due to decreased sensory and motor nerve velocity.
*Muscle spindles and GTO- decreased joint stiffness and muscles spasm. Heating muscle spindles causes them to decrease their sensitivity.
indications for heat treatment
promote injury/wound healing (after acute stage)
non-inflammatory muscle pain, muscle spasm, DOMS
myofascial trigger point pain
conditions involving spasticity
chronic tendonitis and chronic bursitis (pain scale to determine, if lower on scale = chronic)
soft tissue contracture
non-inflammatory joint pain, limited joint mobility, ie.adhesive capsulitis
poor mobility in general (helps increase stretch and ROM)
OA, RA and other inflammatory arthritides (not in flare-up)
heat to stomach for diarrhea
Local effect of heat upon body is determined by F.I.D.S. what is FIDS
when to use caution for systemic heat
sensory or thermoregulatory disorders;
If client is overheated prior to treatment or heat rub was recently used on target area;
-Diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease
Cardiovascular, renal and respiratory conditions;
General contraindicaitions to hydrotherapy
Refusal of treatment
Allergies to additives or cleaning products
Client is unconscious
Client's condition is unknown or unclear therefore must refer out
Lowered Blood Pressure
"Maximum acceptable heart rate increase from the resting pulse is 170 minus the age of a client"
170 minus the age of a client"
Fainting/convulsions all indicate what?
Is a portable electric device that provides moist heat. Operating temperature is 71-74C
indications for use of thermaphore
Used for OA, muscle spasm/hypertonicity, fascial restrictions, preheat for massage, decrease pain
Canvas case filled with bentonite (a water loving silicate). The silicate gel absorbs a large quantity of water and has a high heat capacity. Stored in a tank filled with hot water.
Gets extremely hot. (71-74C)
how long to thermaphore and hydrocollator treatments generally last
Scalding will occur when skin temperature reaches
General procedures for full body applications
-Allow client relax first so you can get an accurate reading of vital signs (BP, Pulse, Respiration and Temperature)
-Assess client for possible CI's
-Explain the nature of the treatment and possible cautions
-Prepare cold collar and glass of water
General procedures for full body applications "during treatment"
Vitals are taken between exposures
Observe negative reactions or signs of stress (overheating)
Make sure the collar is still cold/tepid
Replace if necessary
Allow client to drink water to avoid dehydration
General procedures for full body applications
Reassess, obtain and document Vital signs
Observe expected responses
Rest client before activity or massage therapy.
Expected Responses for systemic heat are:
-decreases blood pressure
-increases heart rate
Expected responses for cryotherapy are;
increase blood pressure
decrease heart rate
indications for whirlpool
Increase overall circulation
Warming up the tissue
Ease arthritis, muscle stiffness, and overall tension
operating temp of whirlpool is
104 degrees F
operating temperature of steam room
46-49 degrees celcius
operating temperature steam box is
operating temperature of sauna is
sub acute healing
This is the regenerating stage in which healing and repair are initiated.
Edema and hyperemia begin to diminish, bruising begins to change colour.
The signs of S.H.A.R.P are beginning to reduce.
The local ranges of motion are increasing, but still may cause pain, and the tissue is likely still fragile
alternating applications of warm/hot and cool/cold to the body or body part. Applied in cycles of warm and cold 3 times. Always ending with cold. The greater the difference in temperature the stronger the effect.
in contrast treatment for EARLY subacute phase of injury; what is the recipe;
3 min cold, 1min heat,
3 min cold, 1 min heat
3 min cold, 1 min heat
end with 3 min cold
in contrast treatment for late subacute phase of injury; what is the recipe;
Predominantly Hot Contrast
Ice and stretch technique for trigger point .
3 min heat, 1 min cold
3 min heat, 1 min cold
3 min heat, 1 min cold
what is the caution in ice massage
cold, burning, aching, numbness
ci's for contrast treatment
peripheral vascular diseases (may tax overstressed vasculature)
diabetes (compromised vascular control)
indications for contrast treatment
poor circulation in the arms and legs
Headaches (to decrease congestion)
Tired achy arms/feet
non acute unresolved circulatory conditions
indications for ice massage;
4 inches per second
Used for treating very localized pain and inflammation; ligament/tendon sprain/strain, and after friction therapy to control any inflammation created in the treated tissue
contrast treatment alternate between what
derivation and retrostasis (vasoldilation and vasoconstriction)
what is the rationale for icing;
it causes a sudden drop in skin temperature that creates a continuous alarm signal to the spinal cord, which has an inhibitory effect on local pain signals, preventing them from reaching the brain. This inhibits the protective spasm of the muscle, allowing the trigger points to be stretched.
after 3rd pass of ice, hold client in the stretch position for
why is client asked to bring muscle in range of motion 3 times.
so they can shorten and lengthen muscle; it is important in resetting the muscles resting length, and getting the message to the brain
usually presents as decreased ROM in musculoskeletal structures
is the fluid dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, much as hydraulic circuits are controlled by control systems
skin perception for ice
sensation of pain @
skin perception for very cold
sensation of pain & numbness @ 1-13C/33-55 F
skin perception for cold
sensation of coldness @
skin perception for cool
sensation of cool at 22-27C/66-80F
skin perception for tepid
sensation of slightly cooling at 28-32C/81-92F
skin perception for neutral
no sensation; at body temperature; 32C/98.6 F
skin perceptions for warm
sensation comfortably warm; 33-38C/93-98F
Skin perceptions for hot
sensation is hot; 39-40 C/99-102 F
skin perceptions for very hot
sensation is redness with prolonged immersion at 39-40C/99-102F
skin perceptions for painfully hot
sensation is pain and possible tissue damage at 44-49C/111 + F
skin perceptions for damaging tissue with heat
sensation is pain and tissue damage; 49C/113C
BP, blood pressure; mm/hg
BPM, Pulse rate
RPM; respiratory rate
if u dont know this by now, you are an idiot. lol
ci's for cold treatments
impaired or compromised circulation; diabetes
previous frostbite or hypersensitivity ie. raynauds or lupus
poor kidney function
hypertension; may temp increase blood pressure
General therapeutic effects of heat
Increases the extensibility (ability to stretch) of collagen fibers
Decreases chronic joint stiffness
Increases range of motion
Relieves muscle spasm
Increases blood flow
Can assist in removal of edema and waste products from areas of injury
Indications for heat
-Joint contractures to stretch tendons and increase flexibility; -Heat and stretch fibers
-Rheumatoid Arthritis- heat increases the viscosity of the synovial fluid in the joint.
Heat and follow with ROM exercises
-Chronic muscle spasm
contraindications for heat treatments
-any acute inflammation such as bursitis, arthritis, tendonitis, sprains or strains
-Deep vein thrombosis
- impaired circulation or reduced sensation
-congestive heart failure
-acute injury, inflammation and edema
-Pregnancy - no immersion baths or hot packs to the abdomen
Very young and very old may be unable to communicate
Open wounds, rashes or previous burns
Types of cooling
convective; blowing air over skin; ie. fan
evaporative; removal of heat by using ethyl chloride sprays
conductive; contact cooled with ice packs or compresses
General therapeutic effects of cold
reduces muscle spasm by breaking pain-spasm-pain cycle
is an exchange of energy between two surfaces that are in direct contact with each other (Heat Packs, Cold Packs, Whirlpool, Bath).
division of haploid
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