100 terms

AP Human Geography 2

Another set of basic terms and key issues.
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Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Carrying Capacity
The number of people the area can sustain or support.
Population Density (Arithmetic Density)
The total number of people divided by the total land.
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of are of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Immigration
Refers to people coming INTO a country or region.
Emigration
Refers to people EXITING a country or region.
Global Population Accounting Formula
P0= Size of population at the START of interval of measurement
P1= Size of population at the END of interval of measurement.
B= Number of births during the interval of measurement.
D= Number of deaths during the interval of measurement.
P1= P0+B-D
Subglobal Population Accounting Formula
P0= Size of population at the START of interval of measurement
P1= Size of population at the END of interval of measurement.
B= Number of births during the interval of measurement.
D= Number of deaths during the interval of measurement.
I= number of immigrants MOVING INTO regions during interval of measurement
E= Number of emigrants EXITING regions during interval of measurement
P1= P0+B-D+I-E
Crude Birth Rate
The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in society.
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in society.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR-- Also called RNI)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in society.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth/death rates and low RNI to a condition of low crude birth/death rates, low RNI, and a higher total population.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Population Explosion
A dramatic population increase or exponential, unprecedented growth in human population over the last three centuries.
Exponential Growth Rate
Means the more people that are added, the faster the population is growing.
Linear Growth (Arithmetic Growth)
Fixed rate of growth.
Zero Population Growth
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.
Replacement-Level Fertility
Meaning that parents will produce the number of children needed to replace themselves.
Demographic Momentum
Occurs in many developing countries when the population continues to grow after replacement-level fertility is reached.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Cohort
A group of people of the same age.
Graying Population
A population that has more middle-aged and older people than young people.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 6
compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Pronatalist Population Policies
Encourages families to have more kids.
Eugenic Population Policies
Policy that encourages some groups of people to have babies and discriminated against other groups, discouraging their reproduction.
Antinatalist Population Policies
Restrictive policy that discourages from having babies.
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population at a GLOBAL SCALE.
Epidemic
Disease that occurs over a geographic area and affects a population at a LOCAL SCALE.
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality.
Circulation
Short term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
Migration Stream
A pathway from place of origins to a destination.
Migration Counterstream
People moving back to the place of origin from the new place.
Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another.
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Net In-Migration
Occurs when the number of immigrants is larger than the number of emigrants.
Net Out-Migration
Occurs when the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants.
Pull Factor
Factor that induces people to move to a new location.
Push Factor
Factor that induces people to leave old residences.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or a political group.
Intervening Obstacle
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country.
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country.
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another.
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.
Unauthorized Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents.
Chain Migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Quotas
In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher paying jobs.
Remittance
Sum of money sent by a migrant to his or her family back home.
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Cyclic Movement
The seasonal migration of livestock to areas where food is more available.
Transhumance
The movement of livestock to higher elevations during the summer to escape the heat in the valleys and to lower elevations during the winter to escape the severe cold of the mountains.
J-Curve
The shape of the curve represented in an exponential growth chart.
Baby Boom
(Any period marked by a greatly increased birthrate.) A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility. (78.3 million kids born.)
Baby Bust
(The drop of a birthrate following a baby boom.)Period of time during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in life. As such, the fertility rate dropped considerably, in contrast to the baby boom, in which fertility rates were quite high.
Thomas Malthus' Model / Neo-Malthusian
A doctrine advocating control of population growth.
Ravenstein's Laws of Migration
1) Most migration occurs over a short distance.
2) Migration occurs in steps.
3) Long-range migrants usually move to urban areas.
4) Each migration produces a movement in the opposite direction (although not necessarily of the same volume).
5) Rural dwellers are more migratory than urban dwellers.
6) Within their own country females are more migratory than males, but males are more migratory over long distances.
7) Most migrants are adults.
8) Large towns grow more by migration than by natural increase.
9) Migration increases with economic development.
10) Migration is mostly due to economic issues.
Gravity Model
Model that is used to account for a wide variety of flow patterns in human/economic systems, based on Newton's gravity equation which defines gravity or the flow potential (between two sites or locations) as directly proportional to the product of their masses (or size) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: gravity = (mass × mass) ÷ distance2.
Ester Boserup
Author of the book "The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change Under Population Pressure". She argued that population determines agricultural methods.
Four Major Population Clusters
2/3 of the world's population is clustered in these regions; East Asia, South Asia, Southeastern Asia, and Europe. Most of their populations live near oceans or rivers with easy access to an ocean. 2/3 of global population lives within 300 miles of an ocean and 4/5 within 500 miles of an ocean.
Typical Person Traits
Right handed. Makes less than $12,000 a year. Male. Age 28. Ethnicity; Chinese. Has a cell phone, but no bank account.
East Asia
Holds 1/4 of the world's population. The largest out of the four clusters. Its most populous country is China, and China is also the world's most populous country.
South Asia
Holds 1/4 of the world's population (Asia holds half of the entire world's population). Populous countries include India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. 3/4 of the South Asian population lives in India.
Europe
3rd largest cluster. Contains Russia, which also resides on the Asian continent. Less than 10 percent are farmers. Population lives near the coalfields. Europe imports food.
Southeast Asia
4th largest cluster. Populous countries include Vietnam, Cambodia (Indochina). It is 13, 677 islands.
*North Africa and West Africa have the populous country of Nigeria.
Life Expectancy Facts
How long a person can expect to live. Men don't live as long as women. Japan's life expectancy for women is age 82, while the US life expectancy for women is 78. Sub-Sahara Africa expects women to live until they hit their 40s.
Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
Model (graph) developed to explain/predict changes in population growth. Takes the CBR/CDR and NIR into consideration. Economics and culture drives the DTM. In theory, all will pass through 4 stages.
Stage 1
High CBR/DBR, low NIR. (Little Population Growth. Started as hunter/gather society, Agricultural Revolution pushed Stage 1 into subsistence farming. EX. Amazonian tribes, some sub-Sahara regions. NO COUNTRY CLASSIFIED AS STAGE 1.)
Stage 2
High CBR, declining CDR, and the gap between CBR and CDR widens, meaning NIR increases and populations expands at a higher rate. (1st wave urbanization (IR). Economic diversified and not everyone participated in subsistence farming. Lower IMR. Basic improvements in healthcare, nutrition, and education. Nigeria is classified as Stage 2.)
Stage 3
Moderate Growth. Declining CBR. (Couples having fewer kids. Education causes women to want to pursue careers, depending on location. Rural families have more kids so they can help on the farm, but urban families have few kids because more kids equals more space, and more space equals more money.) NIR lowering, but not at 0 (still expanding). (Larger cities with economies comprised of industry, technology, and services, but not as much as agriculture. Strong infrastructure, healthcare and EDUCATION. Continual improvement in lowering the IMR. NIR going up, but not as fast. Living standard improved. NIR getting smaller means that gap between the CBR and CDR is getting smaller.) Large number of countries in the world are in this stage. EX. Brazil.
Stage 4
Low Growth. CBR declines and reached CDR for a zero NIR (Zero Population Growth; ZPG). Sometimes, in ZPG, the CBR is higher than the CDR, but women die before birthing. Most European countries are in this stage, because women are getting careers before having children.
The Rumor of Stage 5
This stage is debatable. CDR would be higher than CBR, causing a negative CBR (Because of cultural or economic issues). Reasons for stage 5 would be individualism (more people deciding to live alone), untraditional sexual relations (gay marriage), negative replacement. All debatable. Example of a stage 5 country would be Germany.
Dependency Ratio Facts
People between the ages of 15 and 64 are included in the nondependent ratio. People below the age of 15 or above the age of 64 are dependent. If the nondependent ratio is lower than the dependent ratio, not enough tax revenue is made. And a graying population can cause a future labor shortage.
High Birthrate Areas
Less developed countries. Lower educated areas. Rural areas. Pronatalist population programs. EX: Sub-Sahara Africa.
Low Birthrate Areas
Women in school longer. Marrying later/career driven. Delaying having kids in order to better prepare (financially). European countries have low birthrates. Cultural costs; India has dowries for girls. Antinatalist population programs (China has a one-child policy.)
High Death Rate Areas
Africa (Sub-Sahara), Russia, Afghanistan. Cause by poor countries, poor education, poor healthcare, malnourishment, political issues (war), disease/famine, sanitation issues (clean water).
NIR
Calculated by CBR minus CDR. Percent; CBR - CDR divided by 10. Sub-Sahara Africa and in the Middle East. Utah has the highest NIR. A NIR can accurately determine the population growth on a global scale, but not at a local scale.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Number of births in a society. Sweden (On a PPP) has paid maternity leaves and state funded daycare. Besides population increase, it's put into place for an increased working population and tax revenue.
Push/Pull Factors
Economical, Cultural, Environmental.
Economic Push/Pull Factors
Immigrate to jobs/ emigrate from no jobs. US and Canada are popular immigration points. Asian/Latin Americans emigrate to US and Canada. Historically, Europeans send emigrants to Canada and US.
Cultural Push/Pull Factors
Push: History of slavery and stability. Refugees. Pull: Education, career, residence. Political (Commi. control after WWII, HUGE emigration from E. Europe to W. Europe.) Restricted Emigration: Berlin Wall
Environmental Push/Pull Factors
Pull: Attractive environments, such as mountains, seaside, and warmer climates. Push: Water (most common threat), floodplains. Intervening obstacles include water, transportation being shortened by physical intervention/ promoted globalization.
Distance Migration
Relocate short distance and remain within country. Caused by major economic activity.
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