201 terms

APUSH IDs Units 1-5

House of Burgesses
1619, the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts; it set a precedent for future parliaments to be established
Mayflower Compact
1620, A document signed by 41 of the male passengers on the Mayflower prior to their landing at Plymouth that agreed to form a body politic to submit to the majority's rule; This set the precedent for future constitutions to be written
Petition of Rights
1628, A legal petition sent to King Charles I from Parliament complaining about the breeches in the law; Foreshadowed later colonial petitions for rights.
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, including Catholics; Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Control of the Purse
Since the legislative branch controlled the payment of the British governor's/executive's salary, he was forced to be loyal to that legislature; This gave colonists some influence in colonial law, but angered local British leaders
Bacon's Rebellion
Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. Though the rebellion was crushed, it caused a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.
"Salutary Neglect"
From about 1690-1760, the American colonies suffered from neglect from the motherland. During this time, the colonies were given indirectly more autonomy in provincial and local matters while supporting Britain economically; The autonomy would ultimately backfire when colonials grew accustomed to the treatment and despised any type of restraint, resulting in a rebellious attitude towards the acts passed by Britain after the Seven Years War.
Middle Passage
A route where slaves were transported to the colonies/new world. Most if not all of the slaves in America came by this route.
Anne Hutchinson
A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
William Bradford
Pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. e also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
John Winthrop
emigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to lead a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
Letters from an American Farmer
A document written by an emigrant French aristocrat turned farmer posing the famous question, "What, then, is the American, this new man?" This is the only critical edition available of what is regarded as the first ever work of American literature.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.
Iron Act
Part of the British Trade and Navigation acts; it was intended to stem the development of colonial manufacturing in competition with home industry by restricting the growth of the American iron industry to the supply of raw metals. This set a feeling of discontent and a feeling of being a tool among colonials.
Molasses Act
A law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies; it was aimed to reserve a monopoly of the colonies. This caused anger among colonials due to the fear of increased prices of rum, since they felt that the British West Indies could not meet the needs of the colonies.
Navigation Acts
Series of laws designed to restrict England's carrying trade to English ships. The law angered colonials who felt that they could profit more if they were not restricted and that they were just tools of British mercantilism.
Great Awakening
It was a revival of religious importance in the 17th century. It undermined older clergy, created schisms, increased compositeness of churches, and encouraged missionary work, led to the founding new schools. It was first spontaneous movement of the American people (broke sectional boundaries and denominational lines).
Zenger Case
The Zenger Case was a trial against the author of an article in a New York newspaper that criticized a corrupt British governor. Zenger was charged with sedition and libel, but he was acquitted. The event was a contribution to the adaptation of the policy of freedom of the press.
Paxton Boys
An uprising of frontiersmen in Pennsylvania who massacred (nonviolent) Conestoga Indians. Governor attempted to try those involved, but they were never tried This showed the bias against frontiersmen in the eastern government, and prompted 600 frontiersmen to march on Philadelphia.
Albany Plan of Union
Colonial confederation calling for each town to have independence in a large whole. It was used for military defense and Indian policies Set a precedent for later American unity.- overally, failed
Peace of Paris
This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
Proclamation Line
The line that was setup by the British that forbids any movement/settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. This angered many colonials, who felt that the current space was too crowded, and that they had every right to move if they desired to since it was they that battled against the French during the Seven Years
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
Patrick Henry
He was an orator and statesman and a member of the House of Burgesses where he introduced seven resolutions against the Stamp Act. Famous for his comment "Give me liberty or give me death", he also promoted revolutionary ideals.
Writs of Assistance
It was a search warrant allowing officials to enter buildings in which smuggled goods may be. It required no cause for suspicion and homes were often ransacked. It influenced the fourth amendment to ensure that officials required a warrant for search and seizures.
Sugar Islands
The only land that France had in the New World after the Seven Years war. These were the places where many New England merchants smuggled sugar from.
Benjamin Franklin
An American diplomat, writer, and inventor. He helped the writing of the Declaration as well as securing French aid.
George Grenville
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
Sugar Act
Amended the Molasses Act that had taxed all foreign molasses entering the U.S. at sixpence a gallon in 1764. The new act ended the previous British policy of keeping Americans out of all revenue-raising measures.
Stamp Act
A means of raising revenue in the colonies, and was passed by Parliament. It stated that all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. It angered the colonists greatly, and led to the creation of the Stamp Act Congress.
Virtual & Actual Representation
The British claimed that all British subjects were represented by members of the House of Commons, while the colonials argued that they were not at all represented as they did not choose their representatives. This caused more anger in the colonies, and influenced how representation functioned after the war.
This name applies to several groups of insurgents who, in 1764, wanted to protect the rights of their community. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Sons of Liberty
A secret society of patriots which was organized in 1765 in the colonies. They formed a Committee of Correspondence to defend themselves against British actions. It was one of the first forms of organized resistance against the British parliament, and members took part in the Boston Tea Party.
Declaratory Acts
Act which was issued in 1766 in order to confirm the British government's right to pass acts which were legally binding to the colonists. It was used to save face after the colonists forced the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Quartering Act
It allowed for British officers to be permitted to stay in the homes of colonials to cut down maintenance cost of the colonial garrison. IT angered many colonists, and influenced the third amendment.
Charles Townshend
British Prime Minister. Influenced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts.
Boston Massacre
An event that took place in Boston where colonial agitators provoked British troops with snowballs with rocks inside them. The result was an accidental firing of muskets into the crowd and the death of some colonials; it became a prime piece of anti-British propaganda.
Lord North
British Prime Minister during revolution. He had passed the Coercive Acts and supported the king greatly to the extent that Britain was ruled only by the king.
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
A declaration of rights at the Stamp Act Congress It argued against the duties of the Townshend acts in this publication.
Gaspee Incident
A schooner was beached in Providence, RI, This upset Americans because it was one of the last of the customs racketeering ships. It was burned down by local inhabitants. It greatly angered the British and showed how militant the colonials were becoming.
Tea Act
Act eliminated import duties entering England, lowering the selling price to consumers, also allowing selling directly to consumers, hurting middlemen. It angered the colonies since it gave a monopoly to the British East India Tea Company, thus forcing local tea sellers out of business.
Boston Tea Party
A group, disguised as Indians boarded the ships and dumped all the tea into Boston Harbor in protest of the Tea Act. It angered the British, and led to the closure of Boston harbor as well as the other Coercion Acts.
Intolerable or Coercive Acts
Several laws that were composed in 1774 in response to colonial rebellion. (Boston Tea Party) It angered the colonies greatly, pushing them further into unity.
Quebec Act
Law which established Roman-Catholicism as the official religion in Quebec and gave it more freedom in order to keep from interferring in war(please them). Angered protestants and colonials who felt that they deserved better.
First Continental Congress
The congress was the colonists' response to the Coercive/Intolerable Acts. This called for a complete boycott of all British goods in 12 of the 13 colonies, showing a growth in unity.
Lexington and Concord
These were the first "battles" of the Revolutionary War. Lex, delayed troops on way to concord. IT showed that the British had only military resolve in mind.
Olive Branch Petition
The petition was a last ditch effort- created by the second Continental Congress- to have King George III redress colonial grievances to avoid further bloodshed The king refused to receive it, and it showed that Britain's only choice was war, and also that the colonists weren't all for full independence
German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.
Bunker Hill
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Second Continental Congress
The congress had resolved that the only option was war due to the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition. It named George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental army and later on adopted the Declaration of Independence.
Common Sense
This was a pamphlet that was written by a Thomas Paine, a common man in the colonies. The pamphlet supported and gave reason to support secession from Britain as well as promote a representative type of government.
Declaration of Independence
Document that contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. Additionally, it asserted certain natural rights It was the colonies official declaration of rebellion.
Republican Mothers
The ideal American women. raised patriots Proved to be the defining role for women in the 19th century.
Articles of Confederation
The articles were the first governing document that unified the colonies against the British It showed the French that the colonials were serious about independence and that they had a post-war plan.
Valley Forge
Place in Pennsylvania where George Washington and his Continental Army spent the winter. It allowed for Washington to regroup and retrain his rag-tag army.
Lafayette and von Stuben
Foreign advisors who helped train American soldiers. Lafayette helped urge France into allying, and von Stuben proved to be a valuable drillman.
a battle that ended with an American victory against the Hessian mercenaries hired by the British. This battle proved to be a morale booster, and was one of Washington's few victories.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington's armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an "end" to the war.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that officially ended the war. The negotiations were between the French, the Americans, and the British. The British gave the North West territory to the Americans.- were recognized as legit indep.
Stono Rebellion
slave rebellion; south-less rights
Currency Act
prohibits from creating money
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
A treaty between Spain and the United States. It guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River for 30 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping.
Land Ordinance of 1785
It set up how the new land gained after the revolution would be distributed and organized. The ordinance set up townships that were 36 sq miles where each plot of land was 1 sq mile and the 16th plot was sold for public schooling. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Northwest Ordinance; 1787
It declared that once a territory had a population of 60000, it would gain full statehood. However, before this, it would remain as a subordinate of the federal government. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Daniel Shays
a leader in a rebellion against the state of Massachusetts due to the amount of discontent of farmers that lost their land due to mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies during the war while they were off fighting. The rebellion, though put down by the state militia, signaled the need for a stronger central government.
Annapolis Convention
As a result of the commerce squabbles among the states, Virginia called for a convention in Annapolis to revise articles of confederation. It led to another one in Philadelphia, which was later to be the Constitutional Convention.
Great Compromise
A compromise that proposed two houses of Congress; one where the population would determine how many representatives a state has, and another to ensure that all states are represented equally. Created the House and Senate while resolving the dispute between the large and small states. - Roger Sherman
3/5 Compromise
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Commerce Compromise
Compromise that made it so that only congress could regulate interstate commerce. It ended the commercial dispute where states would have different tariffs for other states.
It was a belief in a strong and powerful central government. It had a strong influence for a couple of decades in the early country.
Separation of Powers
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate braches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
First sentence of the constitution. Outlined the purpose of writing the constitution.
The act of by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.This is part of the system of checks and balances so that the judicial and the executive do not abuse their powers.
This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the "opposing" party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.
Elastic Clause
It states that Congress has the power "to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper" for governing the country. This was made due to the fact that no one knew what the country would be like in the future, and therefore this clause gave congress power to adjust to the times in order to preserve the strength of the union.
Habeas Corpus
Common law where a judge could release a state prisoner if he was held unlawfully It protected the rights of all and prevented abuse of power.
Ex Post de Facto
A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed increases the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier This was prohibited by the constitution in order to keep the justice system equal and fair.
Electoral College
The system that the United States used and still uses to elect the president. Each state has a number of electoral votes based on the number of representatives it has in congress. The system showed the lack of trust the founding fathers had in the common man.
Judicial Review
It was a power given to the judiciary branch in order to sustain checks and balances. This power let judges examine a law or act passed by the government to see if it was constitutional or not.
An act against one's country One can be tried for treason if two witnesses witness the act of treason.
Federalist Papers
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
A political group who believed in a strong and powerful central government/executive branch. They were influential during Washington's presidency and taught America how to walk. Initiated political party system with the Republicans.
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
An economic policy of Hamilton where the government would pay the national debt at face value. It would help relieve the government out of its huge debt.
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Bank of the US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
Whiskey Tax
Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
James Madison
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
Neutrality Proclamation
A proclamation issued by Washington that proclaimed that The United States was a neutral state when war erupted again between France and England This illustrated the truism that self-interest is the glue of alliances.
Citizen Grant
sent to the U.S. by the French to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by Spain -act of how many did not take the neutrality proclamation seriously. He was a French representative that landed at Charleston and took part in un-neutral activities not authorized by the alliance unknowing of the real American opinion Showed that America was not willing to fight in a European war.
Jay Treaty
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
Pinckney Treaty
agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Farewell Address
The address was Washington's farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
XYZ Affair
A diplomatic incident when made public in 1798, nearly involved the United States and France in war The incident ended the Franco-American treaty and resulted in the undeclared war between the two countries and prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy.
Barbary Pirates
These were Muslim pirates operating from the coast of North Africa that hampered merchant shipping in the area by breaking treaties, attacking ships, and taking hostages/prisoners. The attacks prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy to stop the attacks
Alien and Sedition Acts
the alien act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security and during times of war; sedition act made it a criminal offense to plot against the government -oppressed people's first amendment rights
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts; Virginia resolution said states had the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government; Kentucky resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers
Aaron Burr
Republican who received the same number of electoral votes as Jefferson since they ran together, thus throwing the election to the House. Caused an amendment to state that President and Vice-President were to be voted separately.
Judiciary Act
Act was an effort by the lame duck Federalist majority in Congress to prolong its control of the federal judiciary before the end of John Adams' termThis effort showed that the Federalists were waning in power.
Mercy Otis Warren
New England woman who wrote many works. These included a history of the revolution, a play, and poems One of America's first writers.
Albert Gallatin
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.
Waltham Method
The method was a set of unique production methods used at Lowell's Mills. It is purported to increase efficiency, productivity and profits in ways different from other methods, which gave America a help in industrializing.
Yazoo Land Claims
Fraud perpetrated by several Georgia governors and the state legislature from 1795 to 1803 by selling large tracts of land to insiders at low prices. The lands were to be the states of Alabama and Mississippi later on and it was the first state law repealed by the Supreme Court.
Robert Livingston
He was the U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804. He negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
Louisiana Purchase
The treaty describes the United States acquisition of more than 529,911,680 acres of territory from France in 1803. This greatly increased the size, power, and wealth of the U.S.
Marbury v. Madison
A court case that came from a dispute between Marbury and Madison where Madison refused to sign Marbury's appointment. IT established the basis for the exercise of judicial review and made the judicary branch equal in power.
An incident where the Leopard, a British warship, demanded the surrender for 4 deserters on the Chesapeake. It refused, and the Leopard fired upon the ship This escalated the tensions between the two nations, and directly caused the Embargo Act of 1807 and was an ingredient to the War of 1812.
Set of several trade regulations which established a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade with France. Escalated tensions between Britain and America.establishes a blockade of part of the continent of Europe and prohibited trade w/ France un less American ships went to British ports for licenses for trades
Embargo Act
Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.
Non-Intercourse Act
The act was a replacement of the Embargo Act. It reopened trade with the world except with France and Britain. Like its predecessor, it was ineffective and a precursor to war.
War Hawks
These were mostly young Republicans who had been imbued with the ideals of the American Revolution as youths, who wanted to take Canada and Florida and deal with the Indian problem. They held a majority in Congress, and were responsible for declaring war in 1812
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Hartford Convention
It was a gathering of Federalists in New England whose purpose was to discuss their grievances and to seek redress for their wrongs. They desired amendments to the Constitution that would restore the Federalists, but ultimately, the desires of the convention would be the end of the Federalist Party.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Treaty of Ghent
It was the treaty that ended the War of 1812 by declaring an armistice between US and Briatain. The treaty in essence, declared the war as a draw; however, the treaty proved to be popular since nothing was lost.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
The Treaty demilitarized the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval armaments and forts still remained, and laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the US and British North America This agreement was indicative of improving relations between the United States and Britain during this time period following the end of the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
This phrase was coined by a Boston newspaper that was commonly associated with the administration of James Monroe. It represented a time of a sense of nationalism in the country, as well as a sober executive.
Frances C. Lowell
American business man who started Boston Manufacturing Company. A fore-runner to future American industrialists and pioneered the employment of women, which started the Lowell system of hiring young unmarried women
Cumberland Road
The road was the first interstate highway, and the only one entirely paid for by federal funds. It ran from Maryland to Illinois and helped with the westward movement.
Tariff of 1816
The tariff raised import duties 25% It lessened the flood of imports, protected domestic industry, and prevented an economic crisis
James Monroe
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
John C. Calhoun
He was a senator for South Carolina that was at first a supporter of the Tariff of 1816 but switched sides later on He claimed that it was a pro-Northerner act that would not build up the self-sufficiency of the economy. He was an example of the sectionalism between North and South.
Adams-Onis Treaty
known as transcontinental treaty, purchased Florida from Spain. Established western boundary for US and prevented Seminoles from invading Georgia
McCulloch v. Maryland
This was a judicial case that involved an attempt by Maryland to destroy a branch of the Bank of the United States by imposing tax on the notes This ended with John Marshall promoting Hamiltonian policy of implied powers and claimed that Maryland had no right to tax the bank. This was a blow to state rights and an increase in power of loose interpretation.
Dartmouth v. Woodward
This was a Supreme Court case dealing with the impairment of contracts. It strengthened the Contract Clause and limiting the power of the States to interfere with private institutions' charters. The decision protected contracts against specifically state encroachments.
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, backrushes, bank failures, unemployment and soup kitchens. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Erie Canal
It is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean It cut transport costs into what was then wilderness by about 90%. The Canal resulted in a massive population surge in western New York, and opened regions further west to increased settlement
Tallmadge Amendment
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
Missouri Compromise
This was an agreement passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. The South won Missouri as a slave state, and the North won Maine and the right to forbid slavery in the remaining territories. It showed that compromise again prevented break up.
Denmark Vesey Revolt
A failed revolt by Denmark Vesey to steal arms and lead slaves to freedom. It failed due to loyal slaves. The revolt scarred the South, and made them even more coercive on the manners of slavery.
Gibbons v. Ogden
A case that arose from an attempt by New York State to grant a monopoly of steamboat operation between New York and New Jersey. Ogden was licensed to operate the ferry and argued that navigation commerce was a state regulated thing, but Gibbons had his own ferry business incensed by a statue enacted by congress. The court disagreed with Ogden claiming that Congress had as much power over commerce as navigation. This established a broad interpretation of the constitution.
Henry Clay
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
John Quincy Adams
Sixth president of the United States He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him.
Corrupt Bargain
An event during the 1824 presidential election where Henry Clay did behind the scenes work in order to secure the victory of John Quincy Adams over Andrew Jackson. This enraged Jackson supporters, and would help him win in 1828.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Thomas W. Dorr
He was a U.S. lawyer and political figure who drafted a liberal constitution for Rhode Island which was passed by popular referendum.
South Carolina Exposition & Protest
The document, written by John C. Calhoun, was a protest against the Tariff of 1828. It promoted the nullification theory. This was another example of the rising tension between the North and South and foreshadowed secession.
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Peggy O'Neal-Eaton Affair
Sex scandal involving members of Jackson's cabinet Forced several members of Jackson's cabinet to resign, allowing Van Buren to be elevated as Jackson's successor
Webster-Hayne Debate
It was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union
Maysville Road Veto
A veto by Jackson that prevented the Maysville road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky. This was a blow to Clay's American System, and it irritated the West.
Indian Removal Act
An act that granted the ability to negotiate land-exchange treaties to the federal government. Part of the Indian Removal policy of the government. This allowed the movement of the Indians which granted new land in the south.
Indian Intercourse Act
These were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. It regulated relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as "Indian country".
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Court refused to hear case of the Cherokees, which they brought forward, because Georgia had abolished their tribal legislature and courts. This showed that the Cherokee's position was on their shoulders, and it was a precursor to Worcester v. Georgia
Nullification Ordinance
declared the tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina
Compromise Tariff of 1833
It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Force Bill
The bill authorized President Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force necessary to execute laws, e.g. collect taxes from states who didn't want to pay them; The bill was furthered the power of the presidency.
Nicholas Biddle
He was an American financier who was also president of the Bank of the United States. He was also known for his bribes. He was in charge during the bank war, where Jackson refused to deposit federal funds, which bled the bank dry. He also showed the corruption of the bank.
Roger B. Taney
The fifth Chief Justice. him... and other justices appointed by Jackson favored the power of the states . In the Dred Scott decision (1857) he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens.
Democracy in America
classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
Loco Focos
They were a radical faction of the Democratic Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. Martin van Buren incorporated many ideals from the group.
Whig Party
A political party that lasted from 1834 to 1860, formed to oppose the policies of President Andrew Jackson, The creation of the party signified the end of one party rule.
Specie Circular
Executive order that required payment in gold/silver in order to buy land since paper money was inflating. This signified the growing economic problems which would result in the panic of 1837.
Panic of 1837
As a result of Jackson's economic policies, the United States went through another depression It resulted in the closure of many banks and record unemployment levels.
Independent Treasury System
The act removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks This was the system the government adopted until the federal reserve act of 1910.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Dispute over the toll bridge of Charles River and the free bridge of Warren. The court ruled in favor of Warren. Reversed Dartmouth College v. Woodward; property rights can be overridden by public need
Samuel Morse
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
A Massachusetts Supreme Court case regarding the issue of worker unions; it ruled that unions were not illegal conspiracies provided that their actions were honorable and peaceful. While this did not legalize the worker strikes, it was a milestone for later acts regarding worker unions.
John Deere
American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow. This new plow was much stronger than the old iron version; therefore, it made plowing farmland in the west easier, making expansion faster.
Cyrus McCormick
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Cumberland Road
A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois. It was the first national/interstate highway, and it was a milestone for the eventual connection of all the states by highways, thus increasing trade.
Robert Fulton
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
DeWitt Clinton
Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
Cyrus Field
American businessman who laid the first telegraph wire across the Atlantic. This cut down the time it took for a message to be sent from Europe to American and vice-versa.
Eli Whitney
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was a machine that separated the cotton from the seed; This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves. Eventually led to the rapid expansion of the textile industry
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Joseph Smith
He was responsible for forming the Mormon sect of Christianity. This new sect was an American one and not European in origin as with all the other sects; first Christian sect created in America
Brigham Young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Noah Webster
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Belief that held that God did exist, but man was responsible for building upon what was created. It would help promote scientific advancement as well as inspire Unitarianism.
Catherine Beecher
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
Elizabeth Blackwell
A woman who challenging the taboo of professional women. She graduated from medical college, thereby proving that women are able to do what men can.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Walt Whitman
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
Due to the new liberal movements and religious fervor, many Americans believed that perfection was attainable. Therefore, a series of movements took place to perfect society, such as prison reform, temperance, etc.
Utopian Experiments
Due to the perfectionism occurring in the country, some radical groups attempted to create utopian societies based on communism and equality. These were just examples of the feelings felt by certain Americans that somewhat reflected the general perfectionism.
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Reform Crusades
These were a series of movements designed to better American society. They included movements such as prison reform, temperance, and women's rights. While not bringing an immediate change, the reforms did act as a starting point for a series of changes later on.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She was an American writer famous for Uncle Tom's Cabin, which was about the blackness of American slavery. Acclaimed in Europe and the North, the book furthered the abolitionist movement, and it was a cause of the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
Ardent abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons. His influence brought many people to his standard, as well as to oppose him. He created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded The Liberator
The Liberator
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Frederick Douglas
Famous black abolitionist that escaped from slavery who would later right a narrative of his own life that described his life. He promoted the abolitionist cause and drew the line where evil must be denounced.
Immigration Patters
Due to the varied problems in Europe, distinct groups immigrated to America. First were the Irish, who were hated for their Catholicism and their taking of American jobs. The next group was the Germans, who faired better than the Irish due to the fact that they brought over culture and already knew how to farm. Their massive movement caused a growth of nativist feelings in American, as well as the creation of the Know Nothings.
Know-Nothing Party
A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.
Log-Cabin Campaign, 1840
This was William Henry Harrison's bid for the presidency as a Whig. The campaign attempted to gain the support of the population by portraying Harrison as a simple man who lived in a log cabin. Harrison ultimately won, and was the beginning of active campaigning and slogans.
Caroline Incident
An incident where an American steamer was attacked by the British. It caused a rise in tensions between the two countries.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada as well as the location of the border in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains -called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, to be enforced by both signatories
Oregon Question
A dispute between the British and the Americans over the boundary of Oregon. However, it was resolved by declaring the 49th parallel the official border, preventing war yet again.
Texas Question
Dispute between those who wanted Texas to be immediately accepted as a state; and those who wanted to wait until there was a new free state ready to join so that the balance in the Senate would not be undone. It increased the tensions between the North and South.
Santa Anna
Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
Samuel Houston
An American who went to Texas. During the Texan Rebellion, he was made commander in chief of their armed forces and ultimately defeated the Mexicans. He later served as president of Texas for two terms. He was influential in getting Texas its statehood.
Slidell Mission
This was a last ditch attempt to gain California for America. Polk sent Slidell to offer a maximum of $25 million for it, but it was rejected by the Mexicans. This prompted Polk to provoke war with the Mexicans.