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Marx viewed the relationship between the capitalists and the exploited workers in systemic terms; that is, he believed that a system of _____________ relationships maintained the power and dominance of the owners over the workers.

all of these

Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?

Herbert Spencer

Sociology is considered a science because sociologists

engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding

According to the functionalist perspective, an aspect of social life is passed on from one generation to the next if it

promotes value consensus among members of a society.

The body of knowledge obtained using methods based upon systematic observation is called a (an)


The view that sports serve as an "opiate" for social injustices and distract people from focusing on the reality of personal problems and social issues would most likely be held by

conflict theorists

Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between

all of these

A sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. This would be an example of


The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist

Auguste Comte

The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by

Emile Durkheim

_______________ stresses the study of small groups and often uses experimental study in laboratories.


Émile Durkheim's study of suicide, related suicide rates to

the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.

Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people's social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations

interactionist perspective

Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?

feminist perspective

Which sociologist saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a whole?"

Talcott Parsons

An attempt to explain problems, actions, or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a (an


A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is referred to as

social inequality

Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as


A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one's own society

as an outsider

Which sociologist made an important contribution to the discipline by successfully combining theory and research?

Robert Merton

George Herbert Mead served on committees dealing with Chicago's labor problems and public education. These activities are examples of

social inequality

Despite their differences, functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists would all agree that there is much more to sports than exercise or recreation.


Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?

conflict perspective

Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to

theorizing and gathering information

The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other, is known as

causal logic.

Correlations are an indication that causality is always present.


Which of the following best describes the notion that the higher the level of one's education, the higher one's income level will be?


Validity refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.


Surveys and interviews that focus on macrosociological analyses would be likely to follow which theoretical perspective?

both functionalist and conflict perspectives

According to Max Weber, investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to

all of these

Selection of a research design will influence both the cost of a research project and the amount of time needed to collect the results of the research.


The third step in the scientific method is reviewing the literature.


In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the

control group.

Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use

publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.

Social scientists call the variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another variable a (an

independent variable

A research design is a (an):

detailed plan or method for scientifically obtaining data.

What term do sociologists use to describe the phenomenon whereby subjects deviate from their typical behavior because they realize they are under observation

the Hawthorne effect

A variable is

a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.

Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?

functionalist perspective

The midpoint or number which divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values is referred to as the


When a sociologist actually joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates, the approach is called

participant observation

Which of the following would be considered a valid measure of an individual's intelligence

none of these

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a


Which of the following can serve as a variable in a study?

all of these

A study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire that provides sociologists with information concerning how people think or act is known as


Individuals who have divorced parents are more likely to divorce than individuals who have parents who did not divorce. This statement is an example of a (an)


In which type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied have the same chance of being selected?

random sample

The code of ethics for the discipline of sociology was developed by

the American Sociological Association

Culture lag is

a period of maladjustment during which the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions.

George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to

the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants.

While attending a prestigious lecture at a New York City museum, Bob noisily belches several times and grossly picks his nose. He is violating

informal norms.

Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Therefore, ethnocentrism fosters cohesion in a group. This observation would best reflect which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective

General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called

cultural universals.

Kissing is an example of a cultural universal.


Culture shock is

the feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own.

Discovery is

the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality

In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?

feminist perspective

Norms that are generally understood but not precisely recorded are known as

informal norms

Norms are often violated when

all of these

Viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture is known as cultural relativism


People who have visited China might have experienced culture shock if they ordered meat for dinner and discovered it was


An example of a positive, formal sanction is a

salary bonus.

Sociobiology is founded on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution


Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as


A society is

a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.

In a culture, virtually all citizens follow the same set of norms and values.


From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a society's most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.


A subculture is

a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.

English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of

cultural diffusion.

In some parts of the U.S., horse breeding and/or racing is commonplace. People involved in these activities have developed different words to distinguish between breeds, sizes, and sexes of horses, and these words are unfamiliar to people outside the "horse world." This is an example of

the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

A hypothesis concerning the role of languages in shaping cultures was created by linguist(s)

Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf.

The U.S. formerly demanding conformity to a single language reflects which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective

Which sociologist introduced the concept of culture lag to the discipline?

William Ogburn

Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?

interactionist perspective

Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as


The term "significant others" is

George Herbert Mead's term for those individuals who are most important in the development of the self

Socialization is the process

whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.

The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of

social interaction in human development.

According to George Herbert Mead, during which stage of development does a child respond to numerous members of the social environment and grasp his or her distinctive social position?

the game stage

In the nature versus nurture debate, most social scientists maintain that "nurture" is considerably more important than "nature."


Rites of passage are

rituals marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another

The dramaturgical approach is

a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.

According to Charles Horton Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, development of one's self-identity based on misperceptions may lead to

negative self-identity.

Gender roles are

expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.

Which sociologist suggested that during the second stage of development, children become capable of assuming the perspective of another and are thereby able to respond from that imagined viewpoint?

George Herbert Mead

Which conflict theorists suggest that schools in the U.S. foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishments that can cause children to feel stupid and unsuccessful?

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

Anticipatory socialization refers to

processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.

Which of the following factors complicates the socialization of older persons in the U.S.?

both experiencing retirement AND declining physical ability

Social scientists now recognize that

it is not enough to care for an infant's physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with children's social development

According to Jean Piaget's cognitive theory of development, the stage in which children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas is called the

preoperational stage.

A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of


Which usually causes the most stress: socialization or resocialization


In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?

c. interactionist perspective

Life-course theorists suggest

socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle.

Which of the following is the definition of Erving Goffman's concept of "face-work"?

people's efforts to maintain a proper image and avoid embarrassment in public

As children grow older, their peer groups become more and more important relative to the influence of

the family

Children shape and form their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on cultural messages they receive from

all of these

The self is the

distinct identity that sets us apart from others.

Your boss has just screamed at the work staff for poor sales growth and high absenteeism. Consequently, you decide that this would not be a good time to speak to the boss about a promotion. In this instance, you are effectively

a. demonstrating role taking.

An inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised that from this point on he/she will be referred to only by number. This is an example of

a degradation ceremony.

In total institutions, people are subjected to humiliating rituals known as

degradation ceremonies.

A person leaves a singles' bar alone and later tells a friend, "There wasn't anyone interesting in the entire crowd." This is an example of


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