102 terms

sociology test 1 chap 1-4

Marx viewed the relationship between the capitalists and the exploited workers in systemic terms; that is, he believed that a system of _____________ relationships maintained the power and dominance of the owners over the workers.
all of these
Which early sociologist applied the concept of evolution to societies in order to explain how they change or evolve over time?
Herbert Spencer
Sociology is considered a science because sociologists
engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding
According to the functionalist perspective, an aspect of social life is passed on from one generation to the next if it
promotes value consensus among members of a society.
The body of knowledge obtained using methods based upon systematic observation is called a (an)
The view that sports serve as an "opiate" for social injustices and distract people from focusing on the reality of personal problems and social issues would most likely be held by
conflict theorists
Contemporary conflict theorists are concerned with the conflict between
all of these
A sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. This would be an example of
The discipline of sociology was given its name by the French theorist
Auguste Comte
The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by
Emile Durkheim
_______________ stresses the study of small groups and often uses experimental study in laboratories.
Émile Durkheim's study of suicide, related suicide rates to
the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society.
Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people's social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations
interactionist perspective
Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?
feminist perspective
Which sociologist saw "society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which contributes to the maintenance of the system as a whole?"
Talcott Parsons
An attempt to explain problems, actions, or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a (an
A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is referred to as
social inequality
Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as
A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one's own society
as an outsider
Which sociologist made an important contribution to the discipline by successfully combining theory and research?
Robert Merton
George Herbert Mead served on committees dealing with Chicago's labor problems and public education. These activities are examples of
social inequality
Despite their differences, functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists would all agree that there is much more to sports than exercise or recreation.
Which sociological perspective sees the social world as being in continual struggle?
conflict perspective
Although some of the early sociologists saw themselves as social reformers, by the middle of the twentieth century, the focus of the discipline of sociology had shifted to
theorizing and gathering information
The relationship between a condition or a variable and a particular consequence, with one event leading to the other, is known as
causal logic.
Correlations are an indication that causality is always present.
Which of the following best describes the notion that the higher the level of one's education, the higher one's income level will be?
Validity refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
Surveys and interviews that focus on macrosociological analyses would be likely to follow which theoretical perspective?
both functionalist and conflict perspectives
According to Max Weber, investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to
all of these
Selection of a research design will influence both the cost of a research project and the amount of time needed to collect the results of the research.
The third step in the scientific method is reviewing the literature.
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the
control group.
Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that use
publicly accessible information and data, or data collected by another.
Social scientists call the variable that is hypothesized to cause or influence another variable a (an
independent variable
A research design is a (an):
detailed plan or method for scientifically obtaining data.
What term do sociologists use to describe the phenomenon whereby subjects deviate from their typical behavior because they realize they are under observation
the Hawthorne effect
A variable is
a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
Which sociological perspective would most likely suggest that education is necessary for people to earn more money and advance in society for the purpose of social stability?
functionalist perspective
The midpoint or number which divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values is referred to as the
When a sociologist actually joins a group for a period to get an accurate sense of how it operates, the approach is called
participant observation
Which of the following would be considered a valid measure of an individual's intelligence
none of these
A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a
Which of the following can serve as a variable in a study?
all of these
A study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire that provides sociologists with information concerning how people think or act is known as
Individuals who have divorced parents are more likely to divorce than individuals who have parents who did not divorce. This statement is an example of a (an)
In which type of sample does each member of the entire population being studied have the same chance of being selected?
random sample
The code of ethics for the discipline of sociology was developed by
the American Sociological Association
Culture lag is
a period of maladjustment during which the nonmaterial culture is still adapting to new material conditions.
George Ritzer's concept "The McDonaldization of society" refers to
the domination of numerous sectors of societies throughout the world by principles initially used by fast-food restaurants.
While attending a prestigious lecture at a New York City museum, Bob noisily belches several times and grossly picks his nose. He is violating
informal norms.
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others. Therefore, ethnocentrism fosters cohesion in a group. This observation would best reflect which sociological perspective?
functionalist perspective
General customs and practices that are found in every culture are called
cultural universals.
Kissing is an example of a cultural universal.
Culture shock is
the feeling of surprise that is experienced when people witness cultural practices different from their own.
Discovery is
the process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality
In the study of language, which sociological perspective suggests that gender-related language reflects the traditional acceptance of men and women into certain occupations?
feminist perspective
Norms that are generally understood but not precisely recorded are known as
informal norms
Norms are often violated when
all of these
Viewing people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture is known as cultural relativism
People who have visited China might have experienced culture shock if they ordered meat for dinner and discovered it was
An example of a positive, formal sanction is a
salary bonus.
Sociobiology is founded on Charles Darwin's theory of evolution
Penalties and rewards for conduct relating to a social norm are known as
A society is
a fairly large number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independent of people outside it, and participate in a common culture.
In a culture, virtually all citizens follow the same set of norms and values.
From a functionalist perspective, the social significance of the dominant ideology is that a society's most powerful groups and institutions control the means of producing beliefs about reality through religion, education, and the media.
A subculture is
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the larger group.
English-speaking people in the U.S. commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
cultural diffusion.
In some parts of the U.S., horse breeding and/or racing is commonplace. People involved in these activities have developed different words to distinguish between breeds, sizes, and sexes of horses, and these words are unfamiliar to people outside the "horse world." This is an example of
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
A hypothesis concerning the role of languages in shaping cultures was created by linguist(s)
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf.
The U.S. formerly demanding conformity to a single language reflects which sociological perspective?
functionalist perspective
Which sociologist introduced the concept of culture lag to the discipline?
William Ogburn
Which sociological perspective suggests that language and symbols offer a powerful way for a subculture to feel cohesive and maintain its identity?
interactionist perspective
Norms governing everyday behavior, the violation of which raises comparatively little concern, are known as
The term "significant others" is
George Herbert Mead's term for those individuals who are most important in the development of the self
Socialization is the process
whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture.
The analysis of Isabelle and Genie is important because it emphasizes the relevance of
social interaction in human development.
According to George Herbert Mead, during which stage of development does a child respond to numerous members of the social environment and grasp his or her distinctive social position?
the game stage
In the nature versus nurture debate, most social scientists maintain that "nurture" is considerably more important than "nature."
Rites of passage are
rituals marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
The dramaturgical approach is
a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
According to Charles Horton Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self, development of one's self-identity based on misperceptions may lead to
negative self-identity.
Gender roles are
expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females.
Which sociologist suggested that during the second stage of development, children become capable of assuming the perspective of another and are thereby able to respond from that imagined viewpoint?
George Herbert Mead
Which conflict theorists suggest that schools in the U.S. foster competition through built-in systems of rewards and punishments that can cause children to feel stupid and unsuccessful?
Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis
Anticipatory socialization refers to
processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships.
Which of the following factors complicates the socialization of older persons in the U.S.?
both experiencing retirement AND declining physical ability
Social scientists now recognize that
it is not enough to care for an infant's physical needs; parents must also concern themselves with children's social development
According to Jean Piaget's cognitive theory of development, the stage in which children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas is called the
preoperational stage.
A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
Which usually causes the most stress: socialization or resocialization
In forming a sense of ourselves, we imagine how we appear to others and how others perceive us, and finally we develop a feeling about ourselves as a result of these impressions. This sociological approach to the development of a self represents the views of which sociological perspective?
c. interactionist perspective
Life-course theorists suggest
socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle.
Which of the following is the definition of Erving Goffman's concept of "face-work"?
people's efforts to maintain a proper image and avoid embarrassment in public
As children grow older, their peer groups become more and more important relative to the influence of
the family
Children shape and form their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on cultural messages they receive from
all of these
The self is the
distinct identity that sets us apart from others.
Your boss has just screamed at the work staff for poor sales growth and high absenteeism. Consequently, you decide that this would not be a good time to speak to the boss about a promotion. In this instance, you are effectively
a. demonstrating role taking.
An inmate enters prison and is stripped of his/her clothing and advised that from this point on he/she will be referred to only by number. This is an example of
a degradation ceremony.
In total institutions, people are subjected to humiliating rituals known as
degradation ceremonies.
A person leaves a singles' bar alone and later tells a friend, "There wasn't anyone interesting in the entire crowd." This is an example of