48 terms

Cognition

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Functioning of the brain and the nervous system is universal.
True
What are some examples that show that Functioning of the brain and the nervous system is universal?
-Anatomical Structures
-Handedness
Anatomical Structures
little to no biological cross-cultural differences
Handedness
majority are right handed
Do biological differences exist across cultures?
Yes
What is an example that shows that biological differences exist across cultures?
Age of menarche
Does the average age of menarche differ across cultures?
yes
Is the age of menarche higher or lower in developed nations?
higher
Are there are significant differences between racial/ethnic groups?
...In U.S. small, but significant differences. (African Americans & Latino-12.2; Caucasian- 12.8)
In the U.S., has the age of menarche changed over the past century?
yes;the median age for the us is 12.3 and 100 years ago it used to be 15; the age has dropped
As societies modernize, the average age of menarche changes.
True
What is responsible for the change in the age of menarche?
Improvements in health and nutrition
Are people equally susceptible to illusions?
no
difference between vision and perception
1. interpreting psychological factors-perception
2. what we see (purely biological)-vision
Hermann Grid
-optical illusion
-biologically determined
-no cultural variations
Müller-Lyer Illusion
a perceptual illusion on which two lines of equal length appear different in size; cultural differences; not all people are susceptible to this allusion
Who is more prone to the Müller-Lyer Illusion?
-people who are used to interpreting images in depth
-westerners and people who live in urban environments
people less prone:
-people not used to interpreting images in depth
-non westerners and people who live in non urban environments
Ponzo Illusion
two lines on a railroad track, the one farther away perceived as larger but they are the same size due to linear perspective
Brislin (1993) in the U.S. and Guam: who is more illusion prone?
-guam=not as susceptible as westerners
-westerners and urban subjects
Horizontal-Vertical Illusion
an illusion of lenght produced by a figure such as an inverted T in which the the vertical line appears substantially longer than the horizontal line
Who is more susceptible to theHorizontal-Vertical Illusion illusion?
-subjects from regions with open landscapes
How do we explain these perceptual differences?
Literacy and experience
What is visual perception is influenced by?
Experience
Blakemore & Cooper (1970) - kitten study
...
Visual experience varies across cultures.
True
What is the Carpentered World Hypothesis?
Segall et al. (1966)
we are used to seeing rectangular things
we are used to seeing rectangular things because:
outside edges are acute angles
Why does the Müller-Lyer illusion work?
b/c we interpret non rectangular figures seen in perspective
Front-Horizontal Foreshortening Theory
- We tend to interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines in the distance.
- We tend to interpret lines in the horizontal plane that look as if they are moving away as being longer than lines crossing the viewer's line of vision.
Symbolizing 3-D in 2-D Theory
Converting 2-D pictures into 3-D images
-in western culture, we focus more on paper images
Formal Schooling is related to:
- Susceptibility to optical illusions
- (Differences in categorization strategies)
- (Memory)
face recognition:Do we recognize individuals of our own race better than we do people of other races?
...
Susceptibility to optical illusions related to:
-living in an urban environment
-amount of formal schooling
If you answered true for most of the odd numbers and false for the rest on the t/f quiz, then you probably have a ________ view of time.
polychronic
If you answered true for the even numbers and false for the rest on the t/f quiz, then you probably have a __________ view of time.
monochronic
E. T. Hall's (1971) Theory
...
What is associated with a polychronic sense of time?
-many tasks at once
-highly involved with their tasks
-emphasis being on activity of the moment
-cyclical
-unstructured
-tend to be more spontaneous
-highly engaged w/ the person they are with at that moment
-emphasis on people instead of schedules and tasks
What is associated with a monochronic sense of time?
-one task at a time, fixed, linear, structured scheduled
Collectivistic Cultures Tend to favor what type of time sense?
polychronic
Individualistic Cultures Tend to favor what type of time sense?
monochronic
High-context cultures
cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication; cultures in which messages are indirect, general, and ambiguous
In high-context cultures, How is most information transmitted?
most information transmitted is contained in the physical context (the setting)
In high-context cultures, what gives the message meaning?
context
Low-context cultures
Cultures in which messages are direct, specific, and detailed. Not depended on a great deal of context with the message;emphasize communication via spoken or written word;
In Low-context cultures, how is most information transmitted?
most information is put through the explicit message; is stated verbally
China is a high- or low-context culture?
low
The U.S. is a high- or low-context culture?
low
There is a strong correlation between what type of cultures and what type of time-sense?
-strong correlation between high context and polychronic time sense
-strong correlation between low context and monochronic time-sense