12 terms

Problem Solving

Problem Solving can be described in terms of four phases
1) understand the problem
2) generate one or more hypotheses
3) test the hypotheses
4) check the results
mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis

ex: in chess, you would consider each of your possible moves, each of your opponent's possible replies, each of your next moves, and soforth
strategies for simplifying a problem or for guiding an investigation

ex: what should i do with my life? restrict attention to a few possible careers and then learn about the jobs
representative heurisitc
tendency to assume that, if an item resembles members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself
base-rate information
how common the two categories are
availability heuristic
strategy of assuming that how easily one can remember examples of some kind of event indicates how common the event itself is

news media overestimates drug wars, so there are a lot of drug wars (not true)
critical thinking
the careful evaluation of evidence for and against any conclusion
they believed their estimates were more accurate than they actually were
confirmation bias
accepting one hypothesis and then looking for evidence to support it, instead of considering other possibilities
functional fixedness
tendency to adhere to a single approach or a single way of using an item
framing effect
tendency to answer a question differently when it is framed (phrased) differently
sunk cost effect
willingness to do something we wouldn't otherwise choose to do because of money or effort already spent