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Terms in this set (98)
Frequently allow movement between bones.
Are all joints, articulations, flexible or moveable?
the study of joints
The study of the functional relationship of the skeleton, joints, muscles, and nerves.
how it all comes together function and movement wise.
Body joint with the most motion
Spine, wrist, hips
Body joint with the least motion
bones attached to the sternum
motion of articulation
varies from none to extensive
Structure of a joint
greatly determines the range of motion
Mobility vs. stability
You can't have both!
the more mobile you are, the more likely you are coming out of a joint
shoulder is most dislocated bone
happens if you don't put a cast on your bone and let it heal and fuse together
3 types of functional joints
varies of how moveable it is
Synarthroses (don't move)
amphiarthroses (in between)
joint between the bones
ex: arthropods, arthritis
Syn- mean together or with
Synapse, synchronized, synonym
If you sin bad enough, you can get stuck and not move
Slightly moveable joints
In-between synarthroses and a diarthoses in terms of movement
amphibians are also in-between water and air
freely moveable joints
when we die, and decay our joints become freely movable.
3 types of structural joints
what is found between the bones?
fiber, cartilage, or synovial fluid?
ex: Suture, Syndesmosis ( between ulna and radius) and Gomphosis
Joints found in the maxillae and mandible where the root of the tooth is attached to the alveolus
ex: Go MPH O Sis: wooden roller-coaster and your with your sis, your teeth shake
Hold your teeth in alveolar sacs
Has fibers and immovable joints that are only found in the skull. They replace the membranous fontanels at about 18 months of age. Beginning in early adulthood the fibrous connective tissue is replaced by bone so the skull bones are fused to bone (synostosis).
synathrotic, fibrous, suture
exists between the ulna and radius and it permits slight movement
ambiarthrotic, fibrous, and syndesmoses
it's possible because of the interosseous membrane that holds the bones together, while still allowing slight movement.
Cartilaginous joints: Synchondroses
together with cartilage
joined together by hyaline cartilage and lack a joint cavity,
Since they are immovable, they are functionally______?
example of synchondroses
ex: epiphyseal growth plate
having hyaline cartilage between the articulating bone segments.
These growth plates eventually become synostoses.
another example of synchondroses
costochondral joints (immovable joints between the rib and its costal cartilage)
joint between first rib and sternum.
but allows some movement to breathe.
Costochondral joints between ribs and costal cartilages and between rib #1 and sternum (the articulation between the costal cartilages of ribs #2-#7 and the sternum are NOT synchondroses. They are synovial joints).
Cartilaginous joints: Symphyses
are joined together by fibrocartilage, and since they are slightly moveable, they are also ____________?
ex:body of vertebra, symphysis o pubis
amphiarthrotic cartilaginous joint that can be loosened by hormones (Relaxin) produced in pregnancy.
Intervertebral joints between the bodies of the vertebrae and their separating intervertebral discs form ______?
What structure doesn't form a border of the pelvic outlet?
Anterior superior iliac spine
an inter tubercular groove is found
On a bone with a capitulum
the wrist is composed of 8 ________ bones?
with (syn) oil
oval? oval type joints
synovial joints are freely moveable or __________ joints encased by joint capsules that contain joint synovial fluid
found in places with a joint cavity
you need a capsule to help provide the lubrication of joints
Classify a joint functionally and structurally
3 terms: general functional classification, general structural classification, and structural sub classification
diarthrotic synovial joints
the most obvious type of articulation in the body
all synovial joints are diarthotic
A synovial joint's _____________ is limited by the shape of the articulating bones, ligaments, tendons, the joint capsule, and by muscles that span the joint.
range of motion
There is tremendous individual ____________ in joint motility, most of which is related to body conditioning.
Hyper mobility of a single joint (double-jointed)
makes an individual more prone to joint dislocation and damage to the joint and joint capsule
due to loose tissue
Synovial joints are enclosed by a ____________ ____________ ___________, which has an outer layer called the ______________ _____________ and an inner layer called the ______________ _____________.
1. fibroelastic joint capsule
2. fibrous capsule
3. synovial membrane
articular cartilage is avascular (no blood vessels). How does articular cartilage receive nutrients?
Food comes by synovial fluid (filtrate of blood)
the synovial membrane secretes a viscous oily synovial fluid which lubricates the articular cartilage and which brings nutrients and removes wastes from the chondrocytes.
the popping sound that occurs when a joint is pulled or stretched is typically caused by gas bubbles that form in the synovial fluid and burst (causing the popping sound) when the pressure in the __________ is decreased.
can't develop arthritis with popping
popping sounds of the back when stretched or pressed can also be caused by rupturing gas bubbles the synovial fluid OR by sudden repositioning of articular surfaces
if you can repeatedly pop a joint without a decrease in synovial fluid, it's because it's bone against bone
what is the implication that cartilage is fed by synovial fluid?
moving helps feed it; move it or loose it
Since articular cartilage is avascular, it heals poorly.
ex: doctors drilling holes through the damage articular cartilage into the bony epiphysis.
Why would they do this?
blood; helps "feed" the cartilage. and help it heal through the synovial fluid
so blood can reach the cartilage to affect repair
the repetitious compression/relaxation that occurs during exercise is vital to the articular cartilage's well-being because the accompanying pumping action _______ its nutrition and waste removal from the surrounding synovial fluid.
connect bones to bones across a joint are composed of dense fibrous connective tissue.
The elbow is shown
is what comes from a muscle to a bone to a bone. counting to ten, i used tendons in order to do it because I need my muscles in order to do it
Nerves and blood vessels _______ and supply the __________ _________ and associated ligaments
2. articular capsul
can get inflammed and infects and important for joints
fibrous saclike structures that contain synovial fluid and are lined with synovial membrane
helps with lubrication
surrounds tendons to lubricate them
numerous ______ are found spanning the wrist and ankle joints
not part of the joint itself, are composed of dense fibrous connective tissue. Tendons connect muscles to bones and help stabilize joints. They sometimes limit the range of motion of a joint.
Synovial joints are classified by
types of movements they allow (uniaxial, biaxial, and multi-axial)
axis: refers to axis or a plane
we have a few joints that can only move in one plane. a hinge joint on our finger
can move in two or more planes
can move in multiple planes
can rotate in the joint as well
ex: hips and shoulders
Planar (gliding) joints
ex: are intercarpal joints and inter tarsal joints
(superior articular processes of one vertebrae articulate with inferior articular processes of another vertebrae) of adjacent vertebrae are diarrhetic synovial gliding (planar) joints.
what are the functional and structural terms that classify the articulations between the vertebrae?
Spine contains diarthrotic synovial gliding (planar) joints between the vertebral articular processes and amphiarthrotic cartilaginous symphyses between the vertebral bodies
ex; elbow, knees, jaw, interphalagneal joints in fingers and toes
interphalangeal joints are _____________________________
diarthrotic synovial joints.
The proximal articulation between the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna is a________ ____________ ____________ _________. It is uniaxial.
diarthrotic synovial pivot joint
head of radius can spin as the annular ligament allows it to spine
another pivot joint is located where?
the atlantoaxial joint ( the invertebrate)
atlantoaxial joint is a _____________________________________ that allows the head to ___________ side to side in a "no" motion. IT=s is uniaxial.
diarthrotic synovial pivot joint
round oval articulating surface
allow movement in multiple planes
an oval comvex surface of one bone fits into an elliptical concave depression of another bone. it's biaxial.
found metacarpophalangeal joints for fingers #2-#5
metacarpophalangeal joints for fingers #2-#5
diarthrotic synovial condyloid joints
diarthrotic synovial condyloid joint. it is biaxial
found between the carpals and the first metacarpal bone. it gives us an opposable thumb.
found between the malleus and the inches in the middle ear
acetabulofemoral (hip) joint is what?
diarthrotic synovial ball-and-socket joint. it's multiaxial
the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint is a
diarthrotic synovial ball and socket joint.
multiaxial joints/ ball and socket joints have _______ range of motion
bones are levers to help move the resistance (R), the muscles proves the force or effort (E) and the joints act as pivots of fulcra (F).
What kind of motions occur at joints
a simple movement in which two opposing surfaces slide slightly back-and-forth or side-to-side to one another. The angle between the bones doesn't change.
Where does gliding motion occur in the body?
the wrists and ankle
occurs when two bones are changing in a relative motion
flexion and extension occur in an anterior-posterior plane
not side to side
flexion and of the knee and hip followed by __________ of both
flexion of the vertebral column
by contraction of rectus abdominus muscles
bacterial infection that leads to severe muscle contractions
the hyperextended spine is called what?
beyond 180 degrees
decreases a joint angle in a coronal plane. this type of movement occurs primarily between the vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar regions of the vertebral column
lateral type movements
abduction: away from body
adduction: towards the body
circumduction of ball-and -socket joints
take a joint and make a circle/joint
shoulder, hip, waist, wrist, ankle, neck, knuckles, condyloid joints
rotation of head
by use of atlantoaxial joints
rotation is possible of the ulna and radius
because of diarthrotic synovial PIVOT joint
palms up and hands out (you want soup!)
professional basketball player
to go down
to go up
dorsal surface go in
dorsal surface go out
to protrude out (your chin for example)
to bring back
mortui vivos docent
dead teach the living
Recommended textbook explanations
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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
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